Attrill, M.J. and M. Power. 2002.  Climatic influence on a marine fish assemblage.  Nature 417: 275-278.

Barton, A.D., C.H. Greene, B.C. Monger, and A.J. Pershing.  2003.  Continuous plankton recorder survey phytoplankton measurements and the North Atlantic Oscillation: interannual to multidecadal variability in the Northwest Shelf, Northeast Shelf, and Central North Atlantic Ocean.  Prog. Oceanogr. 58: 337-358.

Beaugrand, G., F. Ibañez, and P.C. Reid.  2000.  Spatial, seasonal and long-term fluctuations of plankton in relation to hydroclimatic features in the English Channel, Celtic Sea and Bay of Biscay. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 200: 93-102.

Belkin, I.M., S. Levitus, J. Antonov, and S.-A. Malberg. 1998. “Great Salinity Anomalies” in the North Atlantic. Progr. Oceanogr. 41: 1-68.

Benfield, M.C., P.H. Wiebe, T.K. Stanton, C.S. Davis, S.M. Gallager, and C.H. Greene. 1998.  Estimating the spatial distribution of zooplankton biomass by combining video plankton recorder and single-frequency acoustic data.  Deep-Sea Res. II 45: 1175-1199.

Benfield, M.C., A. Lavery, P.H. Wiebe, T.K. Stanton, C.H. Greene, and N. Copley.  2003.  Distributions of physonect siphonulae in the Gulf of Maine and their potential as important sources of acoustic scattering.  Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 60: 759-772.

Brodziak, J., and L. O'Brien. 2005. Do environmental factors affect recruits per spawner anomalies of New England groundfish? ICES J. Mar. Sci. in press.

Broecker, W.S.  1997.  Thermohaline circulation, the Achilles heel of our climate system: will man-made CO2 upset the current balance. Science 278: 1582-1588.

Conover, R.J., S. Wilson, G.C.H. Harding, and W.P. Vass. 1995. Climate, copepods and cod: some thoughts on the long-range prospects for a sustainable cod fishery. Clim. Res. 5: 69-82.

Conversi, A., S. Piontkovski and S. Hameed.  2001.  Seasonal and interannual dynamics of Calanus finmarchicus in the Gulf of Maine (Northeastern US Shelf) with reference to the North Atlantic Oscillation.  Deep-Sea Res. II 48: 519-539. 

Cushing, D.H. 1982. Climate and Fisheries. Academic Press, New York.

Cushing, D.H. 1996. Towards a science of recruitment in fish populations. Excellence in Ecology No. 7.

Cushing, D.H., and R.R. Dickson. 1976. The biological response in the sea to climatic changes. Adv. Mar. Biol. 14: 1-122.

de Young, B., R. Harris, J. Alheit, G. Beaugrand, N. Mantua, and L. Shannon. 2004. Detecting regime shifts in the ocean: data considerations. Prog. Oceanogr. 60: 143-164.

Dickson, R.R., P.M. Kelly, J.M. Colebrook, W.S. Wooster, and D.H. Cushing. 1988. North winds and production in the eastern North Atlantic.  J. Plank. Res. 10: 51-169.

Drinkwater, K.F., B. Petrie, and P.C. Smith. 2002. Hydrographic variability on the Scotian Shelf during the 1990s. Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization SFO Doc. 02/42, Serial No. N4653.

Drinkwater, K.F., et al.  2003. The response of marine ecosystems to climate variability associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation. In: J.W. Hurrell, Y. Kushnir, G. Ottersen, and M. Visbeck (Eds.), pp. 211-234, The North Atlantic Oscillation: Climatic Significance and Environmental Impact, Geophysical Monograph 134, AGU, Washington, DC.

Durbin, E.G., Campbell, R.G., Casas, M.C., Ohman, M.D., Niehoff, B., Runge, J., and Wagner, M. 2003. Interannual variation in phytoplankton blooms and zooplankton productivity and abundance in the Gulf of Maine during winter. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 254: 81-100.

Frank, K.T. 2003. State of the Eastern Scotian Shelf Ecosystem. DFO Ecosystem Status Report 2003/2004.

GLOBEC. 1992. GLOBEC Northwest Atlantic Program. GLOBEC Canada/US Meeting on NW Atlantic Fisheries and Climate. Report Number 2. Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Greene, C.H., T.K. Stanton, and K.M. Fristrup (eds.) 1998a.  Bioacoustical Oceanography.  Deep-Sea Res. II 45.

Greene, C.H., K.M. Fristrup, T.K. Stanton, R. Gisiner, and R.C. Tipper. 1998b.  Bioacoustical oceanography: an introduction.  Deep-Sea Res. II 45: 1151-1153.

Greene, C.H., P.H. Wiebe, C.R. Pelkie, M.C. Benfield, and J.M. Popp.  1998c. Three- dimensional acoustic visualization of zooplankton patchiness. Deep-Sea Res. II 45: 1201-1217.

Greene, C.H., P.H. Wiebe, A.J. Pershing, G. Gal, J.M. Popp, N.J. Copley, T.C. Austin, A. M. Bradley, R.G. Goldsborough, J. Dawson, R. Hendershott, and S. Kaartvedt. 1998d.   Assessing the distribution and abundance of zooplankton: a comparison of acoustic and net-sampling methods with D-BAD MOCNESS.  Deep-Sea Res. II 45: 1219-1237.

Greene, C.H., and A.J. Pershing. 2000. The response of Calanus finmarchicus populations to climate variability in the Northwest Atlantic: basin-scale forcing associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO).  ICES J. Mar. Sci. 57: 1536-1544. 

Greene, C.H., and A.J. Pershing. 2003. The flip-side of the North Atlantic Oscillation and modal shifts in slope-water circulation patterns. Limnol. Oceanogr. 48: 319-322.

Greene, C.H., and A.J. Pershing. 2004. Greene, C.H., and A.J. Pershing. Climate and the conservation biology of North Atlantic right whales: the right whale at the wrong time?  Front. Ecol. Environ. 2: 29-34.

Greene, C.H., A.J. Pershing, R.D. Kenney, and J.W. Jossi. 2003. Impact of climate variability on the recovery of endangered North Atlantic right whales. Oceanography 16 (4): 98-103.

Hakkinen, S. 1999. Variability of the simulated meridional heat transport in the North Atlantic for the period 1951–1993. J. Geophys. Res. 104: 10,991– 11,007.

Hakkinen, S. 2002. Freshening of the Labrador Sea surface waters in the 1990’s: another great salinity anomaly? Geophys. Res. Let. 29:24, 2232, doi:10.1029/ 2002GL015243.

Hanninen, J., I. Vuorinen, and P. Hjelt. 2000. Climatic factors in the Atlantic control the oceanographic and ecological changes in the Baltic Sea. Limnol. Oceanogr. 45: 703-710.

Hillaire-Marcel, C., A. de Vemal, G. Bilodeau, and A.J. Weaver.  2001.  Absence of deep-water formation in the Labrador Sea during the last interglacial period.  Nature 410: 1073-1077.

Hofmann, E.E. and C.M. Lascara. 1998. Overview of interdisciplinary modeling for marine ecosystems. In: A.R. Robinson and K.H. Brink, (Eds.), pp. 507-540, The Sea, Vol. 10. John Wiley and Sons.

Hurrell, J.W. 1995. Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation: regional temperatures and precipitation. Science 169: 676-679.

Hurrell, J.W., Y. Kushnir, G. Ottersen, and M. Visbeck. 2003. An overview of the North Atlantic Oscillation. In: J.W. Hurrell, Y. Kushnir, G. Ottersen, and M. Visbeck (Eds.), pp. 1-36, The North Atlantic Oscillation: Climatic Significance and Environmental Impact, Geophysical Monograph 134, AGU, Washington, DC.

IPCC. 2001. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge Univ. Press.

Jones, P.D., T.J. Osborn, and K.R. Briffa. 2003. Pressure-based measures of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO): a comparison and an assessment of changes in the strength of the NAO and its influence on surface climate parameters. In: J.W. Hurrell, Y. Kushnir, G. Ottersen, and M. Visbeck (Eds.), pp. 51-62, The North Atlantic Oscillation: Climatic Significance and Environmental Impact, Geophysical Monograph 134, AGU, Washington, DC.

Loder, J.W., J.A. Shore, C.G. Hannah, and B.D. Petrie. 2001. Decadal-scale hydrographic and circulation variability in the Scotia-Maine region.  Deep-Sea Res. II 48: 3-35.

MERCINA. 2001.  Oceanographic responses to climate in the Northwest Atlantic.  Oceanogr. 14 (3): 76-82.

MERCINA. 2003. Trans-Atlantic responses of Calanus finmarchicus populations to basin-scale forcing associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation. Progr. Oceanogr. 58: 301-312.

MERCINA. 2004. Supply-side ecology and the response of zooplankton to climate-driven changes in North Atlantic Ocean circulation. Oceanogr. 17 (3): 10-21.

Mountain, D.G. 2002. Variability of the water properties in NAFO subareas 5 and 6 during the 1990s. J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci. 34: 103-112.

Mountain, D.G.  2003. Variability in the properties of Shelf Water in the Middle Atlantic Bight, 1977-1999. J. Geophys. Res. 108, C1, 3014, doi:10.1029/2001JC001044.

Ottersen, G., and N. C. Stenseth. 2001. Atlantic climate governs oceanographic and ecological variability in the Barents Sea. Limnol. Oceanogr. 46: 1774-1780.

Pershing, A.J. 2001. Response of Large Marine Ecosystems to Climate Variability: Patterns, Processes, Concepts, and Methods.  Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

Pershing, A.J., C.H. Greene, B. Planque, and J.-M. Fromentin. 2004. The influence of climate variability on North Atlantic zooplankton populations. In: N.C. Stenseth, G. Ottersen, J. Hurrell, and A. Belgrano (Eds.), pp. 59-69, Ecological Effects of Climatic Variations in the North Atlantic, Oxford University Press.

Pershing, A.J., C.H. Greene, J.W. Jossi, L. O’Brien, J.K.T. Brodziak, and B.A. Bailey. 2005. Interdecadal variability in the Gulf of Maine zoopkankton community with potential impacts on fish recruitment. ICES J. Mar. Sci. in press.

Petrie, B., K. Drinkwater, D. Gregory, R. Pettipas, and A. Sandstrom. 1996. Temperature and salinity atlas for the Scotian Shelf and Gulf of Maine. Can. Tech. Rep. Hydrogr. Ocean Sci. 171, 398 pp.

Petrie, B., and P. Yeats. 2000. Annual and interannual variability of nutrients and their estimated fuxes in the Scotian Shelf-Gulf of Maine region.  Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.: 57: 2536-2546.

Pickart, R., T. McKee, D. Torres, and S. Harrington. 1999. Mean structure and interannual variability of the slopewater system south of Newfoundland. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 29: 2541 –2558.

Piontkovski, S., and S. Hameed. 2002. Precursors of copepod abundance in the Gulf of Maine in atmospheric centers of action and sea surface temperature. Glob. Atmos. Ocean System 8: 283-291.

Rahmstorf, S. 1997.  Risk of sea change in the North Atlantic. Nature 388: 825-826.

Reid, P.C., N.P. Holliday, and T.J. Smyth, T.J. 2001. Pulses in the eastern margin current and warmer water off the northwest European Shelf linked to North Sea ecosystem changes. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 215: 283-287.

Sameoto, D. 2001. Decadal changes in phytoplankton color index and selected calanoid copepods in continuous plankton recorder data from the Scotian Shelf. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 58: 749-761.

Sameoto, D. 2004. The 1990s a unique decade for plankton change in the Northwest Atlantic. Can. Sci. Advisory Secretariat Research Document 2004/074.

Schmittner, A. 2005. Decline of the marine ecosystem caused by a reduction in the Atlantic overturning circulation. Nature 434: 628-633.

Schollaert, S.E., T. Rossby, and J.A. Yoder. 2004. Gulf Stream cross-frontal exchange: possible mechanisms to explain interannual variations in phytoplankton chlorophyll in the Slope Sea during the SeaWiFS years. Deep-Sea Res. II 51: 173-188.

Smith, P.C, R.W. Houghton, R.G. Fairbanks and D.G. Mountain. 2001.  Interannual variability of boundary fluxes and water mass properties in the Gulf of Maine and on Georges Bank: 1993-1997. Deep-Sea Res. II 48: 37-70.

Visbeck, M., et al. 2003. The ocean’s response to North Atlantic Oscillation variability. In: J.W. Hurrell, Y. Kushnir, G. Ottersen, and M. Visbeck (Eds.), pp. 113-146, The North Atlantic Oscillation: Climatic Significance and Environmental Impact, Geophysical Monograph 134, AGU, Washington, DC.

Weaver, A.J., and C. Hillaire-Marcel.  2004.  Global warming and the next ice age.  Science 304: 400-402.

Wiebe, P.H., D. Mountain, T.K. Stanton, C. Greene, G. Lough, S. Kaartvedt, J. Manning, J. Dawson, L. Martin, and N. Copley.  1996.  Acoustical study of the spatial distribution of plankton on Georges Bank and the relation of volume backscattering strength to the composition of the plankton.  Deep-Sea Res. II 43: 197-2001.

Wiebe, P.H., T.K. Stanton, M.C. Benfield, D. Mountain and C.H. Greene.  1997.  High-frequency acoustic volume backscattering in the Georges Bank coastal region and its interpretation using scattering models.  IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 22: 445-464.

Wiebe, P.H., R. Beardsley, D. Mountain, and A. Bucklin. 2002a. US GLOBEC Northwest Atlantic/Georges Bank Program. Oceanography 15: 13-29.

Wiebe, P.H., T.K. Stanton, C.H. Greene, M.C. Benfield, T.C. Austin, and J. Warren.  2002b.   BIOMAPER II: an integrated instrument platform for coupled biological and physical measurements in coastal and oceanic regimes. IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 27: 700-716.

Wood, R.A., A.B. Keen, J.F.B. Mitchell, J.M. Gregory.  1999.  Changing spatial structure of the thermohaline circulation in response to atmospheric CO2 forcing in a climate model. Nature 399: 572-575.