The meeting began with Cabell Davis welcoming the group and presenting
meeting logistics and goals, and program goals and interconnections.
Welcome, logistics and program overview
Cabell Davis, WHOI
Davis presented the meeting goals and briefly reviewed the overall GLOBEC
NWA program goal of quantifying biological-physical mechanisms controlling
recruitment of cod and haddock and their dominant copepod prey species. He
presented a circle plot of haddock biomass-at-age data, which clearly shows
the large cohorts. He pointed out that our ultimate objective is to provide
insights into the causes of those "bonanza" year classes. Davis stressed that
it is not just fish populations that are impacted strongly by recruitment
processes, but most animal species with planktonic phases of life as well as
holozooplankton, including the target copepod species.
Davis then went over the interconnections
between the different phase 4B projects, discussing how interdependent they
are. The FVCOM-NPZD-copepod study (Davis et al) is focusing on understanding
the internal biological and physical mechanisms controlling the lower-food web
and copepod species dynamics in the GB/GOM region and the consequences of
boundary forcing scenarios related to basin and global dynamics. It is
necessary to understand the interior dynamics of the GB/GOM system in order
to understand how the system responds to external forcing. The output of the
FVCOM biophysical model will include concentration-based 3D abundances of
dominant copepod species, which serve as prey for cod and haddock larvae.
These copepod concentrations are critically needed in the larval fish modeling
project (Werner et al.), which is combining individual-based models of cod and
haddock with regional and basin physical models (ROMS) in order to compare the
biological/physical processes controlling larval fish growth and survival in
the GB/GOM region with that on the Norwegian shelf. The basin scale dynamics
developed by Werner et al. also can provide boundary forcing for the
FVCOM model. The detailed analysis of mechanisms controlling diapause in
Calanus (Runge et al.) involves a combination of historical data
analysis and IBMs and is critically important to the concentration based
FVCOM copepod modeling (Davis et al.) as well as to the basin-scale
Calanus IBM study (Gangopadhyay et al.). The basin-scale Calanus study
also uses ROMS and therefore has strong links to the ROMS-based basin-scale
larval fish study. The synthesis work being done relating global, basin, and
regional dynamics (Greene/Pershing et al.) helps tie together the 4B
studies. Although this last study is focusing on freshwater input into shelf
regions of the NWA from the Arctic, the planned workshops provide an excellent
venue for discussions of remote forcing of the GB/GOM region in general and
are therefore an integral part of phase 4B synthesis efforts.
Individual Project Talks
Following this introduction and program overview, the individual project talks
began. Four projects were presented in the morning session and two after lunch.
Davis et al. Project
Davis presented an overview of the
NPZD-copepod species FVCOM-modeling project,
describing its main objectives, approach, hypotheses, and outputs.
Following this overview, Changsheng Chen presented the
FVCOM physical model and the latest results, 1995-2005.
Rubao Ji followed with a
of the NPZD-copepod species model and recent results.
Bob Beardsley then gave a brief
of the Canadian modeling efforts in the NWA, a result of discussions with
Peter Smith (BIO).
Runge et al. Project
Jeff Runge presented an
and discussion of work on diapause mechanisms
in Calanus finmarchicus.
Werner et al. Project
Greg Lough presented an
overview of the larval fish modeling project comparing
the NWA with the Norwegian Sea.
Larry Buckley then presented his latest work on the
growth and mortality in
larval cod and haddock on Georges Bank.
Green et al. Project
Pershing presented an
overview of their synthesis project which examines the
impact of remote forcing of the NWA by intrusions of low salinity water derived
from the Arctic.
Gangopadhyay et al. Project
After lunch Avijit Gangopadhyay presented the
overview and status of their project on basin
scale modeling of Calanus finmarchicus distributions.
Jim Bisagni presented
SST and mooring data revealing Scotian Shelf Water
cross-overs during the GLOBEC years.
Anne-Marie Brunner presented a nice
description of the interannual variability
of satellite SST in the NWA from 1985-1999, showing the 1998 low salinity
intrusion passing along the edge of the slope from the Scotian Self to the
Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB).
Groman et al. Data Management
Bob Groman presented the
status of the data management office activities. He
described the inventory and the new interfaces developed to access and display
these data using a geospatial interface.
Following the afternoon coffee break, "free" time was allotted for intra- and
inter-project communications as needed.
Plenary discussion of themes
The group reconvened in plenary session at 1600 to discuss major themes of the
GLOBEC NWA program. The goal of this session, and of the working groups the
following morning, was to place the individual 4B projects within the larger
perspective of the project as a whole.
Introduction to themes
Davis led off this plenary session with
an overview of the major themes up for discussion:
- What are the key mechanisms controlling recruitment success the target
species? e. g., the bonanza year classes of haddock (1998, 2003)
- What are the key ecosystem indicators?
- What are the physical and biological processes that link global/basin and the
GB/GOM region? e.g. intrusions, warming, winds.
- What is the relative importance of top-down vs. bottom-up forcing of GOM/GB
- What are the big ideas to come out of GLOBEC NWA?
- What are the products/transitions of GLOBEC NWA? e.g. operational products,
lead-ins to new scientific programs.
Georges Bank GLOBEC low salinity anomaly
This overview was followed by an introductory presentation, related to theme 3,
by Dave Mountain on the low salinity event that characterized GLOBEC years 1996
Transitioning GLOBEC to Operational Products
Andy Pershing then presented an introduction to theme 6 on transitioning the findings of
GLOBEC NWA program to
operational tools of use to managers. To motivate discussion, Pershing presented a
conceptual diagram of how data, knowledge, and information interact.
Pershing's introduction sparked a discussion, one that came up again the next day, on who should
fund operations and the role that academic science should play. The general consensus was that
actual 24x7 operations should be conducted under a NOAA modeling center. Academic scientists
would fill the role of developing and validating models.
End of Day One
Working group discussion of themes
In the morning of day 2, a two-hour period was used for working groups to discuss the themes
presented in plenary the previous afternoon. Participants were divided arbitrarily into two
working groups. Each group was charged with discussing all the themes in order to obtain
insights from all meeting participants on all the topics.
Working group reports on themes
Report of Working Group One
Present: Davis (Rapporteur), Beardsley, Runge, Lough, Buckley, Ji
This working group had a general discussion with a large amount of overlap between themes.
Report of Working Group Two
Present: Pershing (Rapporteur), Mountain, Gangopadhyay, Bisagni, Brunner
This group also considered the six thematic questions listed in Section 4. The discussion
ranged across these questions.
After the working group reports were presented, the time-frame of the next meeting was
discussed. It was agreed that meetings be held at 6 month intervals, since the 2-year time
frame of Phase 4 is so short. The next meeting will be held in April 2006. The possibility of
future publication in a volume of Progress in Oceanography was briefly discussed.
The Phase 4B meeting successfully accomplished its goals. Remarkable progress already has
been made on the projects even though funding was received recently in many cases. Each group
gave clear presentations of their project goals and progress. The interactions between groups
were invaluable and established early-on a working relationship between groups. The group of
4B researchers is well-poised for the major synthesis work ahead. The results from these
studies will contribute to a broad understanding of the effects of local and remote forcing
on ecosystem and population dynamics of the target species. While the focus of the phase 4B
research is primarily on scientific questions, this research is being done with consideration
for transitioning results and models to operational tools useful to management.