Cruise Report

R/V EDWIN LINK 9905
Georges Bank
10-29 May 1999

Table of Contents

Purpose of the Cruise

Cruise Narrative

Individual Reports

Physical Oceanography

 Drifter Deployments

 Shipboard Sensors

 Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler

 Hydrography

 Satellite Imagery

Real-time Modelling

Ichtho-Zooplankton

Bongo-net Sampling

MOCNESS Sampling

 DNA Gut Contents Analysis

 Video Plankton Recorder (MOCNESS mounted)

Biochemistry

Predation of omnivorous copepods

Gelatinous Predators

Zooplankton Pump Sampling

Nutrients

Appendix I. Event Log

Appendix II. Personnel List

Appendix III. List of Figures



Acknowledgements

We gratefully acknowledge the very able assistance provided by the officers and crew of the R/V EDWIN LINK, the University of Miami's Techical Support Group and student volunteers. This report was prepared by Greg Lough,  Betsy Broughton,  Lew Incze,  Cisco Werner,  Anna Sell, and Jim Manning. This cruise was sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.



Purpose of the Cruise

The objectives of the cruise were to: (1) Examine the potential exchange of plankton in the vicinity of the tidal flank on the southern flank of Georges Bank and in particular how the exchange relates to retention of fish larvae in the well-mixed cap of the Bank; (2) Use circulation model and drifters to predict the tidal excursion for guiding the samping effort, and forcast larval fish trajectories to simmulate feeding and growth in a near realistic prey field using a bioenergetics model; (3) Conduct site studies to determine the vertical distribution of cod and haddock larvae and pelagic juveniles in relation to the tidal front, their diel variability, predator-prey relations, and biochemical content for growth in the different water-column conditions.



Cruise Narrative

The R/V Edwin Link left Woods Hole at 1400 h DST May 10, 1999 with a complement of 20 scientist and headed for the southern flank of Georges Bank to begin the initial Bongo-net survey. Arrived at our first station 37 at 40 45.0', 68 00.0' (70-m depth) at 0300 h May 11 (Note: all times listed in this narrative are local, consistent with the eventlog). We continued east making bongo tows along the 70-m isobath and started our first north-south transect with station 42 at 41 18, 67 16 (55-m bottom depth). Stations on transect were 5 miles apart and transects were 7 miles to the west. The second transect passed along side the Schlitz moorings. Drifters were released on the third transect near bongo stations 58 and 59 on May 12 to bracket the tidal front centered on the 60-m isobath. On the mixed side of the front drifter #395 (13m) was set at 0221 h DST, 41 8.9, 67 30.6 (57m bottom depth); drifter #200 (33m) was set at 0230 h, 41 8.7, 67 30.8. On the stratified side of the front drifter # 234 (33m) was set at 0405 h, 41 2.6, 67 25.0 (64m bottom depth); drifter #393 (8m) was set at same place and time. 

The bongo grid, which consisted of 6 transects (Fig. 1a and Fig. 1b) 43 stations (42-84), was completed at 0340 h, May 13. We then steamed eastward to locate the drifters released May 12 and make short transect profiles to determine what water type they were tracking. Drifter #200 (mixed, deep) was located at 41 11.3, 67 39.9. A Seabird CTD model 19 was used here for a profile (station 85). Another profile was taken at 41 5.4, 67 26.2 (Station 86). Drifter #234 was located at 41 5.1, 67 21.6 and a profile was taken (station 87). Arrived at our tidal-front time-series station 88 at 1100 h, May 13 (41 12.5, 67 29.0) and began transect across the tidal front with the CTD. CTD stations were made every 2 miles southeast across the front ending with station 94 at 1400 h (41 1.8, 67 20.5). The center of the tidal front was determined to be at the 60-m isobath, so we went back to 41 9.0, 67 26.0 and started the tidal-front time series of observations at 1545 h begining with 1-m MOCNESS 221. The routine was to sample the same site every 6 h with MOCNESS-1m, CTD, pump, and MOCNESS-10 m while the tide moved back and forth across the fixed site. This routine was followed until 0200 h, May 15 when the four drifters were picked up: #200 (mixed) at 0337 h (41 6.3, 67 41.1), #395 (mixed) at 0420 h (40 59.7, 67 45.1), #393 (strat) at 0635 h (40 56.8, 67 25.0), #234 (strat) at 0720 h (40 55.9, 67 25.1). We then steamed back to old station 95 to begin a 8-station CTD transect across the tidal front. Station 98 started on the south side at 0815 h (41 0.3, 67 19.7)) and ran northwest to the shoal station 105 which was completed at 1355 H (41 12.5, 67 29.0). Talked to R/V Endeavor earlier in the morning and planned to redevouz to pick up formalin and exchange data. At 1440 h the Edwin Link launched the 23' Willard and took 9 scientists to the Endeavor at 41 5.73, 67 12.36. At 1600 h Edwin Link steamed back to the transect line and began a new station 106 time series on the stratified side of the tidal front (65 m) at 41 2.0, 67 21.2. A 1-m MOCNESS was deployed at 1706 h May 15 followed by the regular series of samplers. 

Radio call to Endeavor at 0830 h May 16 to discuss preparations for surface dye release experiment at 1300 h today. Steamed north on transect to find tidal-front drop in temperature to set drifters initially on the mixed side of the front. Drifter #089 (23m) and drifter #087 (13m) set at 1100? h in 47 m water depth (41 13.3, 67 27.5). Steamed south to 62 m, stratified water, and set drifter #393 (33m) and #093 (8m) at 1215 h (41 4.1, 67 21.6). Each drifter site was immediately followed by a SeaBird profile. At the stratified site deployment a Reeve net tow was made for live copepods. We returned to station 106 (65 m) at 1330 h and resumed our 6-h time series of observations at a fixed site beginning with MOCNESS 236. Continually plagged by loss of power to MOCNESS-10m. Completed 48-h time series at station 106 at noon May 18. Moved to station 100 on the 60-m isobath (41 5.6, 67 23.7) and began series of observations. MOCNESS-10m not working. Between 1600 and 1800 h steamed north on transect to find front by temperature signature. Returned to station 100. Two more drifters were put out at the 60-m isobath May 19: drifter #234-B (13m) at 0408 h (41 7.9, 67 20.5) and drifter #200B(25m) at 0510 h (41 6.8, 67 19.7). 

May 20, two drifters on the mixed side of the front were recovered: drifter #87 at 0430 h (41 10.3, 67 40.6); drifter #89 at 0600 h (41 1.7, 67 30.5). Sampling continued on station 100 at 0715 h but swell prevented use of the MOCNESS-1/4m. MOCNESS-1m and pump/CTD continued throughout the day. Ceased operations midnight to 0600 h May 21 due to high winds, 40-50 knots and swell. Manning began drifter recovery. Drifter #200B recovered at 0630 h (41 2.4, 67 30.8); drifter #234B recovered at 0740 h (40 59.6, 67 35.14, 65 m); drifter #093 recovered at 100 h (40 54.9, 67 39.1, 67 m); drifter #393 recovered at 1710 h (40 57.6, 67 23.2, 74 m), no transmitter. Tried to start CTD nutrient transect at 2100h but electrical cable problems from CTD winch delayed operations. 

Started 8 station CTD nutrient transect at 0142 h May 22 on former station 98 (41 0.0, 67 19.6, 71m). Ended CTD transect at 0702 h at station 105 (41 12.5, 67 28.9, 44m). On stratified side of front, the storm had mixed the warm surface water down so that a weak thermocline (8-7 C) was now at about 15 m. Radio call 0830 h with Endeavor and Oceanus discussed setup for dye injection experiments at thermocline and bottom on stratified side of front to begin near noon. Endeavor will be located at 67 20, Elink at 67 22, and Oceanus at 67 24. Elink set out drifter #87B (13m) at 1012 h about one mile west of central mooring (41 6.8, 67 17.8, 59.3m). Drifter #234 (8m) and drifter #200C (33 m) set out on the stratified side at 1609 and 1615 h (41 3.1, 67 22.1). Endeavor delayed pycnocline dye injection until tomorrow. Elink began a new time series of observations at former station 106 (65 m) with MOCNESS 263, 1800 h, May 22. 

May 23: time series continues on station 106, glassy sea, hazy fog. Radio call with Endeavor and Oceanus. Endeavor will inject dye around noon in pycnocline only further to the west near 67 38. Willard launch at 1330 h to Oceanus confer with Houghton and bring back jars. Finished station 106 at 1940 h May 24 and steamed west to find drifters in building storm. Retrieved drifter #200C at 2150 h (41 2.3, 67 30.8, 62m); drifter #234C at 2247 h (41 2.4, 67 27.9, 61m); drifter #087B at 0028 h May 25 (41 6.4, 67 29.1, 56m). High winds (30 kt) and seas curtailed operations for the morning of May 25. CTD/nutrient transect of 7 stations began half mile west of Schlitz moorings at 1120 h, Station 14 and ended with station 120. We then steamed back along the transect looking for the front (<8.6C) and deployed drifter #89C (13m) at 1743 h (41 9.2, 67 21), drifter #87C (33m) at 1746 h , and drifter #274C (33m) at 1858 h (41 6.6, 67 17.8), and drifter #93B (8) at 1900 h. 

Returned to station 100 (41 5.5, 67 22) at the 60-m isobath and began a time series of observations beginning with MOCNESS 275. Completed a 48-h time series at station 100 by midnight May 27 and steamed north to station 95 (55 m) for a short 12-h series of tows beginning in the early hours of May 28. A situation developed where a crew member needed to fly home for a seriously ill family member, so we left station 100 at the end of MOCNESS 293, 1030 h May 28 and retrieved drifters. Retrieved drifter #0893 at 1118 h (41 8.2, 67 25.9, 56m); drifter #0873 at 1128 h (41 9.7, 67 24.1, 54m); drifter #93C at 1200 h (41 7.6, 67 23.0, 58m); drifter #234 at 1245 h (41 4.2, 67 24.7, 62m). The final activity was a CTD/nutrient transect of 3 stations (115-117) across the tidal front from 40 58.4, 67 18.9 (73m) to 413.9, 67 21.2 (63 m) which was completed at 1545 h May 28. We left Georges Bank and returned to Woods Hole at 0800 h May 29.    



Individual Reports

Physical Oceanography (J. Manning and K. Fisher)

Drifter Deployments

A total of seventeen drogued-drifter deployments were made on this cruise in four different clusters (see Table 1)  Clusters 1 and 2 are shown in Figure 2 and 3 and 4 in Figure 3. The  drifter ID, listed in column #1 below, is coded by ARGOS PTT# followed by an integer that represents the consecutive deployment.  The deployment ID "3951", for example, is the first deployment of PTT#395 on this cruise.   The dimension and configuration of the drifters and drogues are described in our earlier cruise reports such as SJ9503.

Drifters were deployed on either side of the tidal front and at different depths for each of the cluster experiments.  Cluster #1, for example, had two drifters on the mixed side with drogues at 13 and 33m, respectively, and two drogues on the stratified side at 8m and 33m, respectively.  In the case of cluster #2, additional drogues were placed in the vicinity of the front.  Each of the cluster experiments were conducted for 3-4 days. Drifters were then recovered and redeployed relative to the tidal front.  The tidal front structure was determined by a CTD section  prior to each cluster deployment.

Preliminary analysis of these cluster deployments do not indicate clear preferential movement relative to the front.  There was  evidently a  surface DIVERGENCE at the front in the first cluster, a CONVERGENCE in the 2nd, neither in the third, and a strong VERTICAL shear in the fourth.  Several months of analysis will be necessary to distinguish the important forcings for each cluster. While they were deployed in nearly the same geographic region, the wind and density fields changed significantly between deployments.  Several more model runs with various inputs will be conducted in the case of each cluster to help define the mechanisms involved.



Table 1. EL9905 Drifter Deployment Log  

Deploy

ID

sta# mth day local lat lon water

depth

drogue

depth

region operation lat_dd lon_dd
Cluster#1
3951 58 5 12 221 4108.9 6730.6 57 13 Mixed Deployment 41.148 -67.510
2001 58 5 12 230 4108.7 6730.8 57 33 Mixed Deployment 41.145 -67.513
2341 0 5 12 405 4102.6 6725.0 64 33 Stratified Deployment 41.043 -67.417
3931 0 5 12 410 4102.6 6725.0 64 8 Stratified Deployment 41.043 -67.417
2001 96 5 15 337 4106.3 6741.1 43 33 Mixed Recovery 41.105 -67.685
3951 0 5 15 420 4059.7 6745.1 44 13 Mixed Recovery 40.995 -67.752
3931 97 5 15 635 4056.8 6725.0 74 8 Stratified Recovery 40.947 -67.417
2341 0 5 15 720 4055.9 6725.1 75 33 Stratified Recovery 40.932 -67.418
Cluster#2
891 108 5 16 1043 4113.0 6727.5 46 23 Mixed Deployment 41.217 -67.458
871 108 5 16 1043 4113.0 6727.5 46 13 Mixed Deployment 41.217 -67.458
3932 109 5 16 1215 4104.1 6721.6 63 33 Stratified Deployment 41.068 -67.360
931 109 5 16 1220 4104.1 6721.6 63 8 Stratified Deployment 41.068 -67.360
2342 2100 5 19 408 4107.90 6720.50 56 13 Front Deployment 41.132 -67.342
2002 100 5 19 510 4106.80 6719.70 58 25 Front Deployment 41.113 -67.328
871 0 5 20 430 4110.30 6740.60 51 13 Mixed Recovery 41.172 -67.677
891 110 5 20 600 4111.10 6730.50 41 23 Mixed Recovery 41.185 -67.508
2002 0 5 21 630 4102.40 6730.80 65 25 Front Recovery 41.040 -67.513
2342 0 5 21 740 4059.60 6735.10 65 13 Front Recovery 40.993 -67.585
931 0 5 21 1000 4054.90 6739.10 67 8 Stratified Recovery 40.915 -67.652
3932 0 5 21 1700 4057.50 6723.30 74 33 Stratified Recovery 40.958 -67.388
Cluster#3
872 0 5 22 1012 4106.80 6717.80 59 13 Mixed Deployment 41.113 -67.297
2343 0 5 22 1600 4103.05 6722.14 65 8 Stratified Deployment 41.051 -67.369
2003 0 5 22 1615 4103.05 6722.14 65 33 Stratified Deployment 41.051 -67.369
2003 0 5 24 2100 4102.30 6730.90 62 33 Stratified Recovery 41.038 -67.515
2343 0 5 24 2234 4102.40 6727.90 61 8 Stratified Recovery 41.040 -67.465
872 0 5 25 28 4106.40 6729.10 56 13 Mixed Recovery 41.107 -67.485
Cluster#4
892 0 5 25 1743 4109.20 6721.00 57 13 Mixed Deployment 41.153 -67.350
873 0 5 25 1747 4109.20 6721.00 57 33 Mixed Deployment 41.153 -67.350
932 0 5 25 1900 4106.60 6717.80 61 8 Stratified Deployment 41.110 -67.297
2344 0 5 25 1900 4106.60 6717.80 61 33 Stratified Deployment 41.110 -67.297
892 0 5 28 1101 4108.20 6725.90 56 13 Mixed Recovery 41.137 -67.432
873 0 5 28 1128 4109.70 6724.70 54 33 Mixed Recovery 41.162 -67.412
932 0 5 28 1200 4107.60 6723.00 58 8 Stratified Recovery 41.127 -67.383
2344 0 5 28 1245 4104.20 6724.70 62 33 Stratified Recovery 41.070 -67.412



 Shipboard Sensors

Karen Fisher made a significant contribution to the real-time display and archiving of  alongtrack data.  She wrote a series of Perl, FTP, and MATLAB scripts to handle the hull mounted sensor data . By mid-cruise, plots of all the important variables (SST,  true wind, ship track, etc.) were displayed on both an SGI and LINUX machine in the main lab.This was particularly helpful during the periods of drifter deployment operations when it was necessary to locate the position of the seasurface temperature front. The real time meteorologic data was helpful for validating of model weather data.  Towards the end of the cruise we were able to use Karen's processed data to make shipboard heat flux estimates. Her write-up follows.

The alongtrack data gathered by the R/V Edwin Link's underway system show strong fronts in temperature and salinity over the course of the cruise (Fig. 4, mayat130.tif).  Abrupt temperature excursions of up to 6 degrees were observed, sometimes concurrently with salinity changes.  The over all pattern shows the advection of a warm patch (average temperature of about 12 degrees C) through the study region between days 135 and 140, with a return to the colder (8-10 degrees C) water following the main patch.  A large excursion in the fluorescence measured was also observed; however it should be taken with reservations as it was confounded by a flow problem experienced at the time the drop in fluorescence was seen, and because it registered near- saturation for the majority of the cruise.  A major wind event, predicted by the data assimilation team, was observed to arrive at the ship just before midnight GMT on Day 140 (days measured from January 1st =0).  The wind shifted rapidly at the onset, then proceeded to turn 180 degrees in time to blow over 20 knots (subsampled hourly) once again on Day 144.  The wind events coincided with a precipitous drop in both barometric pressure and air temperature  (Fig. 5, mayatmp130.tif).  Both the short wave and long wave radiation sensors seemed to be operational, and short wave radiation matched well with the model prediction under preliminary scrutiny.

 As the ship spent the majority of the cruise keeping stations bordering the tidal front, temperature and salinity are plotted in relation to the predicted tidal velocity for each tidal period (Fig.6a (maytide6.tif) , Fig.6b, maytide12.tif, Fig.6c (maytide18.tif) , Fig.6d (maytide24.tif) , Fig.6e (maytide30.tif), and Fig.6f  maytide35.tif) [Note that the tidal velocities (Fig.7, maytidv130.tif) used in these plots are derived from Candela's estimates based on previous GLOBEC ADCP data].   Tidal velocity curves which depart markedly from neat ellipses indicate periods of rapid ship motion (buoy collection or transits).  Tidal ellipses which are found in conjunction with circular T and S plots indicated stations well within a water mass, and no change in water mass through advection during the tidal period, such as tidal period 13.  Unidirectional spirals in temperature and salinity indicate advection of a water mass through the study region that is not primarily tidal in origin, seen in tidal period 7 which marked the beginning the intrusion of the warm water patch.  Finally, there are symmetric variations that are indications of the tidal front being advected past the ship, exemplified by tidal period 19.  In this period, cooler water is initially  advected past the ship, off Bank.  Warmer water from beyond the front then surrounds the ship as the tide turns westward, and then returns towards the Bank, once again bringing the highly variable, but cooler, frontal waters past the ship.  As the tide reaches it's maximal on Bank extent, warmer, uniform water surrounds the ship, until the front is once more advected past as the tide flows off Bank again.

Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler

After a visit from Charlie Flagg in late April (prior to our May cruise ),  the narrow band 150kHz ADCP was configured properly.  The problem we had  on the April cruise did not have to do with the ADCP itself but rather with the string of GYRO heading and GPS information being fed to the ADCP computer. During the later part of the May cruise, however, we had a similar problem where the heading was not getting to the ADCP computer at all.  After the May cruise, Noah, the shipboard technician,  found a loose circuit board in the ADCP deck box which is located down in the hold. After securing that unit, the heading returned and, at the time of this writing is apparently ready for the June cruise.

Despite these problems, we did collect good data for the first half of the May cruise. The raw pingdata files were processed with Flagg's MATLAB routine "realtime.m" and, after iteratively determining a transducer correction angle of 5.2 degrees, output in the form of model ready ".m3d" files were generated. In order to reduce the high frequency not important to the model runs, a one hour running average was conducted in the final processing step.  Plots of the data were made in the form of contoured (Fig.8a) velocity,  time series  (Fig.8b) of u & v velocity, and vector  (Fig.8c) plots.

Hydrography

A total of 164 CTD casts were conducted (71 Seabird Model 19 and 93 Seabird Model 911).  The Model 19 CTD was attached to the Bongo Net wire during several transects across the southern flank in the first few days of the cruise. These vertical sections revealed the very thin  surface layer (Figure 9) which extended far up on the bank (~45m water depth). It gradually tapered to zero when we reached the area of sand waves.  These initial transects  help define the appropriate drifter deployment locations and drogue depths. In the case of the stratified side of the front, for example, the tether was shortened in order to center the most of the drogue within the thin surface layer (8m).

Several horizontal contour plots including the station locations (Fig. 1), surface and bottom temperature (Fig.10a), surface and bottom temperature anomaly (Fig. 10b), surface and bottom salinity (Fig. 10e), and surface and bottom salinity anomaly. Cross-sectional views  of  temperature (Fig. 10e), salinity (Fig. 10f), and sigma-t (Fig. 10g) demonstrate the  degree of along-bank variability in the cross-bank structure.  Notice the off-shore influence appears in transect 1, is non-existent in transects 3 and 4, and then reappears in the last transect 6.  The offshore influence (mini-intrusions at depth) is also evident in  some of the horizontal figures above.

In order to examine the vertical structure as observed at various times and positions by the Model 911 CTD, individual profiles were plotted together on the same scale in batches. The first batch (cast 1-30: Fig.11a), for example,  shows very little structure in the first dozen or more cast. Beginning with cast#15, a surface layer ranging from 1-15m depth was evident. The other two batches (Fig. 11b: cast 31-60 and Figure 11c:cast 61-89) show similar variation with time and locations. Similarly, plots of fluorescence and density profiles were made in Figures 11d (cast 1-30), 11e (cast 31-60), and 11f (cast 61-89). While lacking detail, these figures provide some indication of which casts detected a strong pycnocline and subsurface fluorescence maximum.  Note that over the course of time, as we visited different sites at different phases of the tide, the surface layer varied from almost 20m to near zero.  The corresponding profiles of light and light transmission are presented in Figure 11g (cast 1-30), Figure 11h (cast 31-60), and Figure 11i (cast 61-89) (As of this writing, I do not know what to list as the units of the Par sensor. There are two additional variables in the data file called "surface Par" and "corrected Par"). Cross-sectional views  of  temperature (Fig. 12a), salinity (Fig.12b), sigma-t (Fig12c), and fluorescence (Fig.12d) demonstrate the large degree of change  in the water mass structure over the period of the cruise.  This is particularly true for the case of transect #1 vs. transect#2 which were conducted only a few days apart. The  near surface layer developed quickly.

In order to determine the timing of biological sampling relative to tidal phase, plots were generated during the cruise which a) overlaid tidal velocity vs. haul times (Fig. 13a) and b) binned hauls times vs. tidal direction (Fig. 13b). This provided a means of assessing which phases of the tide were sampled sufficiently. 



Satellite Imagery

An automated perl script was operating each afternoon on a NMFS SGI machine which conducted a FTP session into the CMAST imagery archive. If any new CLEAR images were available, a MATLAB routine was launched to plot the zoomed-in image of our study area and a decoded gif image was emailed to the ships.  Bathymetry and mooring locations were overlayed on the image for referencing. While many images were still too cloudy to be useful, some of them such as those on May 10, May 15, May 17, and June 5 (Figs. 14a-d)  indicated a complex structure on the southern flank which did help in diagnosis of our shipboard observations.  When we returned home at the end of May,  the  zoomed viewport was extended to include the Northern Flank for the benefit of the ENDEAVOR and OCEANUS studies in that area.  The daily Limeburner drifter locations were then overlayed as well.  These region-specific images are  helpful to see the small scale features. To see the big picture with ring activity offshore, CMAST generates their own set of gif files.  These are also clear for same  May 10,  May 15, May 17, and  June 5 dates listed above.  



Real-Time Circulation Modeling (C. Werner and J. Manning)

An extensive report of the EL9905 modeling activity is available at http://www.opnml.unc.edu. After a short "cruise log" section, the postscript file includes a cronological account of each run. The text includes detailed listings of input files to document/archive the various experiments that were conducted on-board so that they may be rerun in the future. The electronic files for each run are also stored at the UNC site. Diagnostic plots include results of each QUODDY model iteration, boundary elevations, and particle trajectories. These were generated and saved for each run. Example plots were presented in our previous cruise report from EL9904. A condense summary of the report is presented here to describe the basic tasks perform at sea. Due to the complexity of the real-time system (Figure 15 and 16), readers are referred to both the UNC and Dartmouth Site: (http://www-nml/dartmouth.edu) for a more detailed description of the model process.

Our first successful runs were made a few days into the cruise on May 11-12. Beginning with the hydrography available from the previous broadscale cruise (OC341) and modeled forcing files (wind & boundary elevations) arriving from UNC, the experiments were underway. In the following few days a series of test were made using updated hydrography from the recently completed bongo survey as well as shipboard estimates of wind and heat flux. As reported in a May 17-18th email to our colleagues on land, the results were encouraging. The "separation distance" (the difference in the observed vs. modeled drifter location calculated for each run) was reduced from ~4.5 to less than 2km as we incorporated more real forcings.

Sensitivity studies on the degree of vertical mixing were also conducted during this time by altering the value of the coefficient "ekmin". The objective of the parameter change was to capture the very thin surface layer observed on most CTD cast. A reduction to 2 x 10-5 m2/s accomplished the task but, as with all of these experiments, extensive hindcast studies will be necessary to determine the correct parameterization..

After another set of forecast on May 20th, a few days were spent writing code to animate cross-bank particle trajectories. On request by the chief scientist, movies were generated to illustrate the modeled advection. The code was passed on to our Endeavor colleagues who were developing one of their own.

A few days later, after "May24_FCAST2", we were also able to show some improvement due to assimilation of ADCP data. In this case we had received additional ADCP data from the Endeavor colleagues. In subsequent days we also receive some of their observed drifter and hydrography data. Initial condition files were generated from their VPR surveys ("grid2" and "grid3").

As reported in our May 23-24 email to the land-based team, the hydrography from the AL9904 was received and incorporated into our initial condition files. Thanks to Maureen Taylor on board that vessel, we received 27 CTD cast from the Southern Flank as they sailed in the vicinity of our investigation. An update of several more cast was received a few days later, as they neared completion of their bank-wide coverage. That update was incorporated into the initial condition file for the ENDEAVOR runs the following week.

A 3-day briefing (Sept. 1999) was conducted with the entire set of "real-timers" to discuss our effort, evaluate the results, and plan for the future. At the end of this workshop documents were produced to address the issues of both technology transfer and the hindcasting plan. These documents were posted on the Dartmouth RTDA site along with the draft manuscript for EOS.



Ichtho-Zooplankton Studies

Bongo-net Sampling (G.Lough, M.Kiladis, E.Broughton)

Fifty-one bongo tows were made with a 61-cm frame fitted with 333  and 505  mesh nets using standard MARMAP procedures; i.e., double-oblique from surface to within 5 m of the bottom. A SeaBird CTD (Model 19) was attached to the towing wire above the bongo to monitor sampling depth in real time and to record temperature and salinity. The 505   net sample was sorted at sea to provide counts of cod and haddock eggs and larvae (Figure 1b). Larvae removed from the bongo-net samples were individually frozen in liquid nitrogen for biochemical analysis ashore or preserved in ethanol for otolith aging. 

MOCNESS Sampling (G.Lough, E.Broughton, M.Kiladis)

The 0.25-m2 MOCNESS with nine 64  mesh net sampled phytoplankton and microzooplankton. A total of 11 hauls were taken. The tow profile for the 0.25-m2 MOCNESS was nominally 10-m strata within 5-m of the bottom. The nets typically sampled for 3 minutes to filter about 35 m3 of water.

The 1-m2 MOCNESS with nine 333   mesh nets was used to sample larval fish and larger zooplankton. A total of 41 hauls were taken. Sensors on the 1-m2 MOCNESS included downwelling light, fluorometry, depth, temperature, and salinity. A Video Plankton Recorder (VPR) was attached to the 1-m2  frame to record fine-scale zooplankton distribution during the tow. The VPR high magnification camera was set to a field of view of 2.5 x 3.0 mm and the low magnification camera captured a 2.0 x 2.5 cm area. The tow profile for the 1-m2 MOCNESS was nominally 10-m strata within 5-m of the bottom; extra nets were used for special collections. The nets typically sampled for 5 minutes to filter about 250 m3 of water.

The 10-m2 MOCNESS with five 3-mm mesh nets sampled juvenile ichthyoplankon and larger zooplankton predators. A total of 17 hauls weretaken: four from the "mixed" or shoal side of the tidal front, seven from the stratified or off-bank, southern side of the tidal front, and four hauls within the tidal front. The tow profile for the 10-m2 MOCNESS was nominally 10-m or 20-m strata within 5-m of the bottom. The nets typically sampled for 10 minutes to filter about 5000 m3 of water. 

The MOCNESS sampling strategy was to make four 1-m2 tows every 24 hours at 0600h, 1200h, 1800h, and 2400h. The plankton from the first down profile would be preserved in formalin for larval gadid gut content analysis and gear comparison studies. Two nets were sampled from the surface to 20-m and from 20-m to the bottom to be sorted at sea for gelatinous zooplankton counts, biochemical specimens, and special samples. The remainder of the latter two nets was discarded.   0.25-m2 MOCNESS tows were made between 1m2 tows in conjunction with pump sampling. All samples were preserved immediately in formalin for taxonomic identification, prey field analysis, and gear comparison studies. 10-m2 MOCNESS hauls were taken between 1-m2 tows. Gelatinous zooplankton was visually counted then samples were preserved in formalin. 10- m2 plankton samples will be used for predator studies and juvenile gadid gut content analysis.

Table 2a and 2b documents the repository of samples from MOCNESS and BONGO nets, respectively.

Special Collections (E. Broughton, E. Caldarone)

Samples for biochemical and age analysis were taken from fifty one 505  and 333 , 61-cm bongo nets, and forty one 333  mesh 1-m2 MOCNESS hauls. All samples were rinsed from the nets using minimal seawater pressure and transferred to buckets containing ice packs. Plankton from nets that were not to be sorted was preserved immediately using 4% buffered formaldehyde in seawater. Plankton samples sorted for fish or invertebrates were picked in seawater filled translucent sorting trays on ice covered light tables. Every effort was made to keep samples cold during processing to delay decomposition. Samples taken for biochemisty (Buckley) were video taped for later measurement using a Zeiss Stemi SV 6 stereomicroscope equipt with a MTI CDD72 high resolution black and white video camera then individually frozen in liquid nitrogen. Larval gadids taken for otolith analysis (Burns, Townsend) were preserved in 85% EtOH. 

Table 2a. BONGO Sampling # of specimens.  

                          Mesh Size 333 505
Number of Jars 58 52
Cod-Buckley 147 221
                   Haddock-Buckley 333 541
Cod-Townsend 28 11




Table 2b. MOCNESS Sampling # of specimens

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Number of jars 0.25m2 0 11 11 11 10 11 10 0 0
Number of jars 1-m2 0 53 53 56 68 95 138 0 0
Cod-Buckley 35 387 281
Haddock-Buckley 35 580 611
Cod-Burns 10 69 3
Haddock-Burns 7 403 572
Cod-Townsend 10 93 35

DNA Gut Content Analysis (E. Horgan)

        A total of 63 individuals predators from 5 invertebrate and four fish taxa were preserved in 95% ethanol for later analysis for the presenceof Calanus, Pseudocalanus, cod and haddock DNA in the stomach contents.

MOCNESS-Mounted Video Plankton Recorder (G.Lough, E.Broughton)

The Video Plankton Recorder, an underwater imaging video microscope, was mounted above the net opening on the 1-m2 MOCNESS. This particular system was held in four underwater housings and consisted of two Hi-8 Video Camcorder interfaced with Tattletale computersoftware and Horita time code generators, low (5.6x) and a high (72x) magnification cameras, a strobe, and a 24V-8amp Gel battery pack. Operation was independent of the MOCNESS. Recordings were later dubbed to SVHS tape format together with time code. Recordings were made for twenty five of forty one 1-m2 hauls. Problems with battery charging and a ship's brownout caused communication short circuit prevented taping during all MOCNESS deployments. All in-focus images will be identified to the lowest taxon possible in the laboratory. Processing will include hand identification with computer assisted focus detection, measurement, and 3-D orientation.  

Biochemistry (E.Caldarone, J. Burns)

As previously described in the special collections section, a total of 3,189 cod and haddock larvae were collected for biochemical analysis from the bongo-net survey hauls and extra net profiles of the 1-m2 MOCNESS hauls. Species distribution was 34% cod, 66% haddock. The larvae will be analyzed for their RNA, DNA, and protein content and the data used to determine the growth rate and nutritional condition of the individual fish. A comparison will be made of fish taken from the different sites and at discrete depths. A subsample of 232 larvae will be shipped to Dr. Mike St. John at the Danish Institute for Fisheries Research for lipid analysis.   



Predation of omnivorous copepods on early developmental stages of Calanus finmarchicus and Pseudocalanus spp. (Anne Sell (WHOI), Jenifer Austin (WHOI) & Grace Klein-MacPhee (URI))

Objectives

(1) To catch and maintain cultures of several species of omnivorous copepods that are abundant and potentially important as predators of early life stages of Calanus finmarchicus and Pseudocalanus spp.

(2) To catch adult female C. finmarchicus and Pseudocalanus spp. for cultures producing eggs and nauplii to be used in predation experiments.

(3) To run predation experiments at ambient sea water temperature using deck incubations in a plankton wheel. 

We started collecting live copepods from G. Lough's bongo net hauls on May 11-13, simultaneously with the sorting of fish larvae. In addition, we took a vertical hauls with a Reeve net on May 12 ,16 , 22 and 27. We collected the adult females of Calanus and Pseudocalanus (to obtain eggs and nauplii as prey) and of Centropages typicus, Metridia lucens and Temora longicornis (predators). Because most copepods and particularly the adult Calanus were in better condition when collected with the Reeve net, we obtained the majority of experimental animals from those tows. The abundance of adult female Calanus generally was much lower than during April, with the majority of the population consisting of late copepodid stages. The highest number of adults we found on May 12 at the deeper (80 m) off-bank station.

We held all copepod cultures in a lab incubator at 4 (C, except for the Pseudocalanus cultures, which we kept at 12(C in order to accelerate egg development times. We changed the cultures of Calanus 1-2 times daily to collect eggs to be either used directly in experiments, or to be kept to hatch and provide cultures of nauplii. All other cultures were changed at intervals of several days. Predators were fed ad libitum with phytoplankton from cultures (Thalassiosira weissflogii and Heterocapsa triquetra) before being used in experiments.

We ran one 12-hr and eight 24-hr predation experiments using the combinations of predators and prey listed in the table below. (Experiment numbers are consecutive to those for cruise EN 322 in April/May 1999. Predators in 'Experiment HYD' were hydroids instead of copepods. This experiment was done as part of J. Austin's project within the Summer Student Fellow Program at WHOI.)



Table 3. Copepods Experiments  
Experiment Predator Prey Stage Dates
VIII Metridia lucens C.finmarchicus nauplii May13-14
IX Temora longicornis C.finmarchicus nauplii May15-16
X Temora longicornis C.finmarchicus nauplii May17-18
XI Metridia lucens C.finmarchicus nauplii May18-19
XII Temora longicornis C.finmarchicus eggs May20-21
XIII Metridia lucens Pseudocalanus spp. nauplii May22-23
XIV Centropages typicus C.finmarchicus nauplii May24-25
XV Centropages typicus C.finmarchicus eggs May26-27
HYD Clytia gracilis Pseudocalanus spp. andCentropages typicus nauplii May 27-28

 All incubations were run at ambient surface sea water temperature, which varied between 8 (C and a maximum of 15 (C over the course of the cruise. For the experiments IX, X, XI and XV, changes in sea water temperature over the 24-hr period of incubation were 1-2 (C. Temperatures varied over 3-3.5 (C in experiments VII, XIII and XIV, and over 5.6 (C in experiment XII. We measured temperatures in the incubators at 1 to 2-hr intervals in order to relate ingestion rates to the average temperature during the respective period of incubation.

We generally worked with 12 or 15 2-L bottles on the plankton wheel, using three replicates each of a control (no predators) and three or four different predation treatments, differing in prey concentrations and/or prey type. For egg-predation experiments, we used eggs that were less than 12 hrs old at the start of preparation for the incubation. This was to ensure that the eggs would not hatch during the incubation (egg development time of C. finmarchicus at 5 (C is 2.6 days). To avoid hatching of eggs after the incubation, in response to the stimuli of light and increased temperature during counting, we preserved the eggs with vinegar directly after terminating the experiment (2 ml to 20 ml of sample; P. Joli pers. comm.). Nauplii were counted live.

As results of the predation trials with omnivorous copepods, we established functional response curves describing prey density-dependent ingestion rates for the three predator species Metridia lucens, Centropages typicus and Temora longicornis feeding on the eggs and nauplii of Calanus or Pseudocalanus. Feeding on Calanus nauplii, ingestion rates (per individual) were similar for all three species of predators over a range of 25-50 nauplii/ L, with rates between 2 and 9 nauplii/ predator * day. Saturation of ingestion rates occurred at higher densities of prey, but in some cases (eg. Centropages feeding on Calanus nauplii) could not even be reached with prey densities of 200 nauplii/ L. Comparing predation at different temperatures, we found that ingestion rates of Metridia decreased with increasing temperatures (6 (C, 9 (C, 13 (C).

The hydroid experiment was a follow-up for the earlier work of L. Madin and coworkers, which has provided evidence that Clytia gracilis hydroids are substantial predators on Georges Bank. Our experiment involved examining hydroid predation on two size classes of Pseudocalanus nauplii and on early stages of Centropages nauplii. Hydroid colonies with ten feeding hydranths each were placed in 1-L jars and incubated for 12 hrs at an ambient temperature of 11 (C. None of the larger Pseudocalanus nauplii were ingested, but predation on different densities of the small Pseudocalanus nauplii and of the Centropages nauplii did occur. 



GELATINOUS PREDATORS (Grace Klein-MacPhee Co-PI)

Introduction

The role of my complement of the predation group in the Georges Bank GLOBEC program is to identify potential gelatinous predators on the target species (cod, haddock, Calanus and Pseudocalanus); to determine their biomass on Georges Bank coincident with the target species; to determine their potential impact on survival of cod and haddock, either directly as predators on eggs and larvae, or indirectly as competitors for their food, Calanus and Pseudocalanus.

In the field studies conducted in 1995- 1999, we identified three abundant species of ctenophores in addition to abundant planktonic hydroids and chaetognaths. I have focused on the ctenophore Pleurobrachia pileus as a predator on the target species because it has been abundant in several years of the survey and because it was described by Bigelow in 1924 as one of the most important pelagic coelenterates in the Gulf of Maine from an economic standpoint because it was locally very abundant, present throughout the year, and was a destroyer of smaller planktonic animals in particular copepods (Bigelow 1927). Bigelow also believed it to be an important predator on cod and haddock eggs although he did not offer any direct evidence of this.



Examination of gut contents from cruises in 1995 showed that fish eggs and larvae including cod were consumed in small quantities (1.25% of diet), and various stages of copepods were consumed in larger quantities (17% Calanus and Pseudocalanus and 15% other or unidentified copepods). We have also determined gut passage times of live Pleurobrachia using dyed Calanus  adults as prey at 9oC.  Gut contents of preserved specimens from net tows and from diver collected specimens were also determined and will be compared. In general, diver collected specimens had fuller guts that specimens collected in the Moc-1 nets. Ultimately, gut contents and gut passage times will be used to determine prey selection and feeding rates.

There are several species of ctenophores occurring on Georges bank including Bolinopsis, Beroe,and Pleurobrachia . Since gelatinous zooplankters in general are often damaged in net collections, and those which survive relatively intact often break down when exposed to preservatives, it is difficult to obtain abundance data for these organisms by using traditional net collection methods. Identifying and enumerating gelatinous zooplankton by video recording methods is in the developmental stage and will be tested this year. Until this method has been validated, the most useful method for enumerating delicate gelatinous plankton is by counting the samples immediately after they are brought on board before preservation. This is time consuming and is often difficult when there is a great deal of material in the samples, however the more robust specimens (Pleurobrachia) can be counted with reasonable accuracy and the more delicate species (Beroe, Bolinopsis) with a rough approximation since they have a tendency to break into pieces.

Bigelow, H.B. 1927. Physical oceanography of the Gulf of Maine. Bull. U.S. Bureau of Fish. 40(2): 511-1027

Objectives:

In the May 10-28 cruise my goals were:

To describe potential gelatinous predators on the target species (cod, haddock, Calanus, Pseudocalanus) which were present during this cruise with emphasis on the ctenophore Pleurobrachia pileus

To describe Pleurobrachia vertical distribution and abundance both day and night across a tidal front

To count jelly fish and ctenophores collected by bongo nets, MOCNESS-1(MOC-1 and MOCNESS-10(MOC-10)nets before preservation and to compare these counts to selected samples after preservation and storage

To compare the distribution of the target species particularly cod and haddock with the distribution of Pleurobrachia and to determine if there were differences across the front

To obtain samples of Pleurobrachia for gut content analysis

To assist in setting up Copepod feeding experiments conducted by Anne Sell which will contribute to the understanding of the role of small invertebrates as predators on the target organisms Calanus and Pseudocalanus.

Methods:

Plankton collections were made using a series of nets 1 meter MOCNESS with 9 nets (.333 mesh) and 10 meter MOCNESS with 5 nets (3 mm mesh)at shallow and deep stations in the day and at night, on either side of the tidal front where cod larvae and Calanus were determined to be present. Nets were fished at 8 depths in the deep stations and 5 depths in the shallow stations.  The presence of cod and Calanus was determined by doing a series of bongo net transects along a grid. Bongo nets were towed obliquely and an integrated sample was taken. All nets were rinsed with sea water and the contents preserved immediately in phosphate buffered formalin. Details of the sampling regime, hydrography  and station locations are described elsewhere in the report.  Samples from the nets were rinsed into buckets and concentrated by sieving through appropriate sized screens then rinsing into labeled containers to which preservative and clean filtered seawater were added. The Pleurobrachia and other gelatinous zooplankton were counted on the sieves before the samples were preserved. A number of Pleurobrachia were measured live from each net in a selected number of MOC-10 tows. The ctenophores were scooped out with a plastic spoon, rinsed in sea water and measured along the oral/aboral axis. Then they were placed back in the samples for preservation.

Results   

Thirty bongo samples were examine, both 333 and 505 nets representing almost all the stations along the transects. Numbers of Pleurobrachia collected in these samples are shown in Figure 17a. These are raw numbers and have not been converted to numbers per volume towed.  Seventeen complete MOC-1 hauls and 4 partial hauls at station 106 were examined and numbers of Pleurobrachia counted; 13 complete and 3 partial at station 100 and 2 complete at station 95. Two graphs showing the distribution of Pleurobrachia by haul and by depth, and distribution by depth in daylight and dark are shown in Figures 17b and 17c as an example of the information collected. These are raw numbers which have not been converted to numbers per volume as the corrected volume filtered was not available when the graphs were made. In general more Pleurobrachia  were collected in the daylight samples and at depths of 30-50 meters. Only one station and a few hauls made at that station have been graphed as the data are being converted to volumetric measurements for analysis.  Seven complete MOC-10 hauls at Station 106 , two of which were subsampled for live measurements, 5 complete hauls at station 100 one of which was subsampled for live measurements and 1 partial haul at station 95 were examined and numbers of Pleurobrachia. counted.   Three sets of live measurements were made from organisms collected in the MOC-10.  The average oral to aboral size in mm of the organisms collected were: Net 4, 20.56; Net 3, 20.67; Net 2, 21.76; Net 1, 18.52; Net 0, 21.34. There was no statistically significant differences in ctenophore size in the different nets at the 0.01 level of significance.

Accomplishments

We collected replicate day and night discrete depth samples at a shallow and deep station across the tidal front. Predator abundance and distribution was determined from these samples and will be compared to target species abundance and distribution. Live measurements were made on a subsample of Pleurobrachia, and these wil be compared with sizes of preserved specimens from the same tows.   Gut contents of Pleurobrachia collected in the MOC 10 will be examined and compared with those collected in the MOC-1 and with divercollected samples from a previous cruise as their is an indication that the guts are fuller in Pleurobrachia that are hand collected.        Several copepod feeding experiments were conducted, which will be discussed in another section  

Zooplankton  Pump Sampling (L. Incze, N. Wolff and F. Dye)

We took 35 pump profiles of zooplankton to provide: (1) detailed prey field information for the larval fish studies of size, feeding, growth rate, distribution and condition (collections using the 1-m MOC); (2) detailed vertical distributions and abundances (including diel changes) to use with transport and mixing calculations (dye studies, hydrographic data and modeling components); and (3) abundance estimates to compare with VPR records from the 1-m MOC and catch rates with the 1/4-m MOC. The VPR attached to the 1-m MOC is a sampling method in development for simultaneous sampling of prey and larval fish (Greg Lough et al.); the 1/4-m MOC has been used on numerous GLOBEC cruises for sampling the prey field, and a comparison of results is needed. The 1/4-m MOC usually samples ~35 m3 from a (vertical) depth stratum of 10 m, whereas the pump sample comes from a small volume at a discrete depth. Pump samples from earlier GLOBEC cruises suggest higher prey field concentrations. We collected a total of 370 samples during this cruise. 

Methods

Each pump profile was preceded by a standard CTD cast (with fluorometer and Biospherical PAR sensor) for the water column. Pump samples then were taken by attaching one end of a 5 cm x 60 m reinforced hose to the CTD/rosette frame so that the hose opening was near (within ~0.25 m of) the CTD sensors. The CTD was lowered to depth (usually 50 m) and stopped at discrete sampling depths at 5 m intervals up to a depth of 5 m. Time was given for the system to clear at each new depth before sampling. A gas-powered diaphragm pump (same model as used in the 1999 broadscale program and process studies by Durbin, Ohman and others) delivered water from sampling depths to the surface at a nominal rate of 0.3 m3/min. This water passed into a small, rapidly draining reservoir (0.13 m3) on deck to dampen the surge. This reservoir also was drained between sampling depths. A 1.9 cm ID hose carried water from the reservoir to individual samplers equipped with 40 um mesh nets. An electronic timer and flow meter installed in the 1.9 cm hose was started and stopped for each sample, providing very high accuracy measurements of the volumes filtered. The final sampling rate averaged 13 l/min, and most samples were filtered from 27-33 l of water. Samples were preserved in 3-5% buffered formalin. Samples are summarized in Table 4 below.

Table 4. Summary of Zooplankton Pump Profiles
Station CTD cast numbers 
95  9, 12, 14, 15 
100 46, 48, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88 
106  28, 31, 33, 35, 37, 39, 41, 44, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 89 



Nutrients (D. Townsend)  

Nutrient samples were taken for Dave Townsend at  23 CTD stations at near bottom and every 10 meters of the water column .  



Appendix I. Event Log

L OC A L Water Cast
eventno Instr cast# Sta# Mth Day hhmm s/e Lat Lon PI Region Comments Lat(decimal) Lon(decimal)
el13199 BongoS 001 037 5 11 324 4045.1 6760.0 73 70 Lough Strat_d b 40.752 -68.000
el13199 BongoS 002 038 5 11 448 4046.0 6747.0 69 63 Lough Strat_d b 40.767 -67.783
el13199 BongoS 003 039 5 11 607 4050.0 6734.9 74 69 Lough Strat_d b 40.833 -67.582
el13199 BongoS 004 040 5 11 722 4055.9 6723.9 76 70 Lough Strat_d b 40.932 -67.398
el13199 BongoS 005 041 5 11 836 4100.0 6712.1 74 70 Lough Strat_d b 41.000 -67.202
el13199 BongoS 006 042 5 11 1108 4117.8 6715.9 45 42 Lough Mixed_ b 41.297 -67.265
el13199 BongoS 007 043 5 11 1149 4113.9 6712.9 56 55 Lough Mixed_ b 41.232 -67.215
el13199 BongoS 008 044 5 11 1245 4109.9 6709.4 60 57 Lough Front_d b 41.165 -67.157
el13199 Seacat 009 045 5 11 1332 4105.9 6705.9 65 63 Lough Strat_d w 41.098 -67.098
el13199 BongoS 010 045 5 11 1355 4105.8 6706.1 64 61 Lough Strat_d b 41.097 -67.102
el13199 BongoS 011 046 5 11 1443 4101.5 6703.5 69 65 Lough Strat_d b 41.025 -67.058
el13199 BongoS 012 047 5 11 1535 4057.5 6659.9 79 77 Lough Strat_d b 40.958 -66.998
el13199 BongoS 013 048 5 11 1622 4053.3 6656.5 89 85 Lough Strat_d b 40.888 -66.942
el13199 BongoS 014 049 5 11 1720 4049.6 6652.8 97 94 Lough Strat_d b 40.827 -66.880
el13199 BongoS 015 050 5 11 1850 4050.0 6704.0 91 88 Lough Strat_d b 40.833 -67.067
el13199 BongoS 016 051 5 11 1948 4054.3 6707.5 84 82 Lough Strat_d b 40.905 -67.125
el13199 BongoS 017 052 5 11 2045 4058.4 6710.9 77 71 Lough Strat_d b 40.973 -67.182
el13199 BongoS 018 053 5 11 2150 4103.3 6714.3 66 63 Lough Strat_d b 41.055 -67.238
el13199 BongoS 019 054 5 11 2250 4107.5 6718.0 58 53 Lough Front_d b 41.125 -67.300
el13199 BongoS 020 055 5 11 2350 4111.9 6721.0 51 47 Lough Mixed_ b 41.198 -67.350
el13299 BongoS 021 056 5 12 41 4114.5 6724.0 46 43 Lough Mixed_ b 41.242 -67.400
el13299 BongoS 022 057 5 12 143 4111.5 6732.2 42 39 Lough Mixed_ b 41.192 -67.537
el13299 Drifter 3951 58 5 12 221 s 4108.9 6730.6 57 13 Mannin Mixed Deploy 41.148 -67.510
el13299 Drifter 2001 58 5 12 230 s 4108.7 6730.8 57 33 Mannin Mixed Deploy 41.145 -67.513
el13299 BongoS 023 058 5 12 305 4107.0 6728.0 57 49 Lough Mixed_ b 41.117 -67.467
el13299 BongoS 024 059 5 12 355 4102.9 6725.0 63 60 Lough Strat_d b 41.048 -67.417
el13299 Drifter 2341 0 5 12 405 s 4102.6 6725.0 64 33 Mannin Stratifie Deploy 41.043 -67.417
el13299 Drifter 3931 0 5 12 410 s 4102.6 6725.0 64 8 Mannin Stratifie Deploy 41.043 -67.417
el13299 BongoS 025 060 5 12 451 4059.0 6721.6 72 68 Lough Strat_d b 40.983 -67.360
el13299 Seacat 026 061 5 12 537 4055.0 6718.5 80 72 Lough Strat_d w 40.917 -67.308
el13299 BongoS 027 061 5 12 546 4054.9 6718.4 81 80 Lough Strat_d b 40.915 -67.307
el13299 BongoS 028 062 5 12 628 4051.0 6715.6 89 85 Lough Strat_d b 40.850 -67.260
el13299 BongoS 029 063 5 12 713 4047.0 6712.0 94 91 Lough Strat_d b 40.783 -67.200
el13299 BongoS 030 064 5 12 815 4042.2 6719.5 97 93 Lough Strat_d b 40.703 -67.325
el13299 BongoS 031 065 5 12 925 4046.5 6722.4 91 87 Lough Strat_d b 40.775 -67.373
el13299 BongoS 032 066 5 12 1015 4050.5 6726.0 83 81 Lough Strat_d b 40.842 -67.433
el13299 BongoS 033 067 5 12 1105 4055.1 6729.0 73 71 Lough Strat_d b 40.918 -67.483
el13299 BongoS 034 068 5 12 1205 4059.0 6732.9 66 64 Lough Strat_d b 40.983 -67.548
el13299 Seacat 035 069 5 12 1307 4103.4 6736.5 59 56 Lough Front_d w 41.057 -67.608
el13299 BongoS 036 069 5 12 1318 4103.1 6736.4 59 57 Lough Front_d b 41.052 -67.607
el13299 BongoS 037 070 5 12 1412 4108.0 6739.4 51 48 Lough Mixed_ b 41.133 -67.657
el13299 BongoS 038 071 5 12 1503 4104.5 6748.0 51 48 Lough Mixed_ b 41.075 -67.800
el13299 BongoS 039 072 5 12 1553 4100.0 6744.0 57 54 Lough Mixed_ b 41.000 -67.733
el13299 BongoS 040 073 5 12 1658 4055.5 6740.9 66 64 Lough Strat_d b 40.925 -67.682
el13299 BongoS 041 074 5 12 1815 4051.6 6737.0 71 68 Lough Strat_d b 40.860 -67.617
el13299 BongoS 042 075 5 12 1907 4047.6 6734.0 79 76 Lough Strat_d b 40.793 -67.567
el13299 Seacat 043 075 5 12 1934 4047.0 6733.6 80 71 Sell Strat_d w/Reev 40.783 -67.560
el13299 BongoS 044 076 5 12 2044 4043.1 6731.2 87 82 Lough Strat_d b 40.718 -67.520
el13299 BongoS 045 077 5 12 2148 4038.6 6727.1 89 86 Lough Strat_d b 40.643 -67.452
el13299 BongoS 046 078 5 12 2252 4037.1 6736.0 87 82 Lough Strat_d b 40.618 -67.600
el13299 BongoS 047 079 5 12 2350 4040.9 6739.5 74 72 Lough Strat_d b 40.682 -67.658
el13399 BongoS 048 080 5 13 45 4044.9 6742.5 68 64 Lough Strat_d b 40.748 -67.708
el13399 BongoS 049 081 5 13 140 4048.9 6746.5 67 64 Lough Strat_d b 40.815 -67.775
el13399 Seacat 050 082 5 13 234 4052.9 6749.6 63 53 Lough Strat_d w 40.882 -67.827
el13399 BongoS 051 082 5 13 244 4052.8 6749.5 63 58 Lough Strat_d b 40.880 -67.825
el13399 BongoS 052 083 5 13 333 4056.9 6752.4 55 52 Lough Mixed_ b 40.948 -67.873
el13399 BongoS 053 084 5 13 420 4101.4 6756.0 46 41 Lough Mixed_ b 41.023 -67.933
el13399 BongoS 054 085 5 13 716 4111.3 6739.9 51 50 Lough Mixed_ v 41.188 -67.665
el13399 BongoS 055 086 5 13 902 4105.4 6726.1 59 54 Lough Front_d v 41.090 -67.435
el13399 BongoS 056 087 5 13 943 4105.2 6721.8 62 57 Lough Front_d v 41.087 -67.363
el13399 Seabird 1 88 5 13 1112 s 4112.4 6728.9 40 36 Mannin Mixed_ 41.2065 -67.481
el13399 Seabird 2 89 5 13 1144 s 4110.8 6727.8 48 43 Mannin Mixed_ 41.1797 -67.463
el13399 Seabird 3 90 5 13 1214 s 4108.9 6726.3 55 51 Mannin Mixed_ 41.1478 -67.438
el13399 Seabird 4 91 5 13 1241 s 4107.1 6725.0 57 53 Mannin Mixed_ 41.1187 -67.417
el13399 Seabird 5 92 5 13 1322 s 4105.6 6723.7 60 55 Mannin Front_d 41.0932 -67.394
el13399 Seabird 6 92 5 13 1351 s 4103.8 6722.4 63 58 Mannin Strat_d 41.0627 -67.373
el13399 Seabird 7 94 5 13 1426 s 4101.9 6721.0 66 62 Mannin Strat_d 41.0320 -67.349
el13399 MOC1 221 95 5 13 1557 s 4109.1 6726.1 55 50 Lough Mixed 41.1511 -67.435
el13399 MOC1 221 95 5 13 1653 e 4110.2 6729.5 52 50 Lough Mixed 41.1701 -67.491
el13399 Seabird 8 94 5 13 1733 s 4109.1 6726.1 56 51 Mannin Mixed_ 41.1510 -67.435
el13399 CTD/Pu 9 95 5 13 1755 s 4108.9 6727.0 55 46 Incze Mixed_ 41.1483 -67.449
el13399 MOC10 222 95 5 13 2021 s 4109.0 6726.1 56 50 Madin Mixed At 2055 41.15 -67.435
el13399 MOC10 222 95 5 13 2106 e 4109.0 6726.1 56 50 Madin Mixed 41.15 -67.435
el13499 MOC1 223 95 5 14 42 s 4109.0 6726.1 55 50 Lough Mixed Had to 41.149 -67.434
el13499 MOC1 223 95 5 14 130 e 4109.3 6727.2 54 50 Lough Mixed 41.154 -67.452
el13499 Seabird 10 95 5 14 207 s 4108.8 6725.9 55 50 Mannin Mixed 41.1468 -67.432
el13499 MOC1 224 95 5 14 612 s 4109.1 6726.2 55 50 Lough Mixed 41.1516 -67.435
el13499 MOC1 224 95 5 14 653 e 4111.2 6727.2 47 50 Lough Mixed 41.1871 -67.453
el13499 Seabird 11 95 5 14 743 s 4109.2 6726.3 55 51 Mannin Mixed 41.1527 -67.437
el13499 CTD/Pu 12 95 5 14 755 s 4109.3 6726.6 55 51 Incze Mixed 41.1552 -67.442
el13499 MOC10 225 95 5 14 947 s 4108.9 6726.1 55 50 Madin Mixed Sunny, 41.1485 -67.434
el13499 MOC10 225 95 5 14 1053 e 4110.8 6722.8 52 50 Madin Mixed 41.1805 -67.379
el13499 MOC1 226 95 5 14 1252 s 4109.0 6726.1 55 50 Lough Mixed 41.1496 -67.434
el13499 MOC1 226 95 5 14 1337 e 4109.0 6726.1 55 50 Lough Mixed 41.1496 -67.434
el13499 Seabird 13 95 5 14 1358 s 4108.8 6726.1 55 51 Incze Mixed 41.1465 -67.434
el13499 CTD/Pu 14 95 5 14 1429 s 4108.9 6726.0 56 52 Incze Mixed 41.1475 -67.433
el13499 MOC10 227 95 5 14 1618 s 4109.1 6726.1 51 46 Madin Mixed Sunny. 41.1516 -67.435
el13499 MOC10 227 95 5 14 1718 e 4110.8 6725.8 42 46 Madin Mixed 41.18 -67.43
el13499 MOC1 228 95 5 14 1837 s 4108.9 6726.6 56 50 Lough Mixed Sunny, 41.1483 -67.443
el13499 MOC1 228 95 5 14 1945 e 4108.7 6730.9 55 50 Lough Mixed 41.1441 -67.515
el13499 Seabird 15 95 5 14 2052 s 4109.1 6726.0 55 51 Mannin Mixed 41.1523 -67.433
el13499 Seabird 16 95 5 14 2107 s 4109.3 6726.1 55 52 Mannin Mixed 41.1553 -67.434
el13499 MOC10 229 95 5 14 2317 e 4108.8 6726.5 57 50 Madin Mixed 41.1461 -67.441
el13499 MOC10 229 95 5 14 2317 s 4108.8 6726.5 57 50 Madin Mixed Tow 41.1461 -67.441
el13599 MOC1 230 95 5 15 28 s 4109.1 6726.0 55 50 Lough Mixed Winch 41.1515 -67.433
el13599 MOC1 230 95 5 15 114 e 4109.1 6726.0 53 50 Lough Mixed 41.1515 -67.433
el13599 Seacat 057 96 5 15 237 s 4108.4 6736.9 53 Lough Mixed_ v 41.140 -67.615
el13599 Drifter 2001 96 5 15 337 e 4106.3 6741.1 43 33 Mannin Mixed Recover 41.105 -67.685
el13599 Drifter 3951 0 5 15 420 e 4059.7 6745.1 44 13 Mannin Mixed Recover 40.9953 -67.752
el13599 Drifter 3931 97 5 15 635 e 4056.8 6725.0 74 8 Mannin Stratifie Recover 40.9466 -67.416
el13599 Drifter 2341 0 5 15 720 e 4055.9 6725.1 75 33 Mannin Stratifie Recover 40.9316 -67.418
el13599 Seacat 058 97 5 15 739 s 4056.8 6725.0 74 Lough Strat_d v 40.947 -67.417
el13599 Seabird 17 98 5 15 828 s 4100.0 6719.6 71 67 Mannin Strat_d nutrient 41.0003 -67.326
el13599 Seabird 18 99 5 15 903 s 4101.9 6721.0 67 61 Townse Strat_d Nutrient 41.0322 -67.350
el13599 Seabird 19 100 5 15 939 s 4103.8 6722.3 64 60 Townse Front Nutrient 41.0625 -67.371
el13599 Seabird 20 101 5 15 1021 s 4105.6 6723.7 61 57 Townse Front_d Nutrient 41.0932 -67.394
el13599 Seabird 21 102 5 15 1103 s 4107.2 6724.9 58 51 Townse Front_d Nutrient 41.1195 -67.414
el13599 Seabird 22 103 5 15 1137 s 4109.0 6726.2 55 51 Townse Mixed_ Nutrient 41.1493 -67.436
el13599 Seabird 23 104 5 15 1218 s 4110.8 6727.6 48 43 Townse Mixed_ bottles 41.1792 -67.460
el13599 Seabird 24 104 5 15 1236 s 4110.7 6727.4 48 41 Townse Mixed_ bottles 41.1785 -67.455
el13599 Seabird 25 104 5 15 1303 s 4110.6 6726.8 49 42 Townse Mixed_ Nutrient 41.1773 -67.446
el13599 Seabird 26 105 5 15 1336 s 4112.5 6728.9 44 39 Townse Mixed_ Nutrient 41.2075 -67.482
el13599 MOC1 231 106 5 15 1709 s 4101.9 6721.2 67 60 Lough Stratifie Sunny, 41.0316 -67.353
el13599 MOC1 231 106 5 15 1823 e 4102.8 6724.9 64 60 Lough Stratifie 41.0466 -67.415
el13599 Seabird 27 104 5 15 1929 s 4102.2 6721.6 67 61 Mannin Stratifie 41.0373 -67.359
el13599 CTD/Pu 28 106 5 15 1946 s 4102.3 6722.2 66 56 Incze Stratifie 41.0385 -67.369
el13599 MOC10 232 106 5 15 2158 s 4101.5 6721.3 67 60 Madin Stratifie Salinity 41.025 -67.355
el13599 MOC10 232 106 5 15 2252 e 4103.8 6719.0 65 60 Madin Stratifie 41.0633 -67.316
el13699 MOC1 233 106 5 16 35 s 4102.6 6720.9 66 60 Lough Stratifie Had to 41.0433 -67.347
el13699 MOC1 233 106 5 16 116 e 4103.7 6719.7 65 60 Lough Stratifie 41.062 -67.328
el13699 Seabird 29 106 5 16 202 s 4101.9 6721.0 66 62 Mannin Stratifie 41.0315 -67.350
el13699 MOC10 234 106 5 16 325 s 4102.0 6720.9 66 60 Madin Stratifie 41.0331 -67.349
el13699 MOC10 234 106 5 16 401 e 4102.1 6719.6 66 60 Madin Stratifie 41.0351 -67.325
el13699 MOC1 235 106 5 16 613 s 4101.9 6721.2 68 60 Lough Stratifie Had to 41.0311 -67.353
el13699 MOC1 235 106 5 16 706 e 4101.9 6721.2 68 60 Lough Stratifie 41.0311 -67.353
el13699 Seabird 30 106 5 16 750 s 4102.3 6721.5 67 62 Mannin Stratifie 41.0383 -67.357
el13699 Seacat 059 107 5 16 943 s 4110.7 6727.0 49 Lough Mixed_ v 41.178 -67.450
el13699 Seacat 060 108 5 16 1004 s 4112.5 6728.0 45 Lough Mixed_ v 41.208 -67.467
el13699 Drifter 891 108 5 16 1043 s 4113.0 6727.5 46 23 Mannin Stratifie Deploy 41.2166 -67.458
el13699 Drifter 871 108 5 16 1043 s 4113.0 6727.5 46 13 Mannin Stratifie Deploy 41.2166 -67.458
el13699 Drifter 3932 109 5 16 1215 s 4104.1 6721.6 63 33 Mannin Stratifie Deploy 41.0683 -67.36
el13699 Drifter 931 109 5 16 1220 s 4104.1 6721.6 63 8 Mannin Stratifie Deploy 41.068 -67.360
el13699 Seacat 061 109 5 16 1223 s 4104.2 6721.5 63 Lough Stratifie v 41.070 -67.358
el13699 Seacat 062 109 5 16 1235 s 4104.4 6721.5 63 Lough Stratifie w 41.073 -67.358
el13699 Seacat 063 109 5 16 1247 s 4104.4 6721.5 62 Sell Stratifie w/Reev 41.073 -67.358
el13699 MOC1 236 106 5 16 1352 s 4101.99 6720.86 67 60 Lough Stratifie Winch 41.033 -67.348
el13699 MOC1 236 106 5 16 1445 e 4103.18 6717.44 66 60 Lough Stratifie 41.053 -67.291
el13699 CTD/Pu 31 106 5 16 1530 s 4102.0 6720.9 66 61 Incze Stratifie 41.0335 -67.348
el13699 MOC1 237 106 5 16 1843 s 4102.00 6721.10 66 60 Lough Stratifie Sunny, 41.033 -67.352
el13699 MOC1 237 106 5 16 1952 e 4104.16 6721.63 65 60 Lough Stratifie 41.069 -67.361
el13699 Seabird 32 106 5 16 2039 s 4102.0 6721.3 67 62 Mannin Stratifie 41.0330 -67.355
el13699 Seabird 33 106 5 16 2059 s 4102.1 6721.8 67 61 Mannin Stratifie 41.0355 -67.363
el13699 MOC10 238 106 5 16 2302 s 4101.80 6721.20 68 60 Madin Stratifie 41.030 -67.353
el13699 MOC10 238 106 5 16 2340 e 4103.70 6719.30 65 60 Madin Stratifie 41.062 -67.322
el13799 MOC1 239 106 5 17 32 s 4101.99 6720.93 67 60 Lough Stratifie Had to 41.033 -67.349
el13799 MOC1 239 106 5 17 132 e 4104.40 6718.80 64 60 Lough Stratifie 41.073 -67.313
el13799 Seabird 34 106 5 17 236 s 4102.0 6720.8 66 62 Mannin Stratifie 41.0325 -67.346
el13799 CTD/Pu 35 106 5 17 305 s 4101.6 6720.9 67 62 Incze Stratifie 41.0270 -67.347
el13799 MOC10 240 106 5 17 456 s 4101.80 6720.40 66 60 Madin Stratifie 41.030 -67.340
el13799 MOC10 240 106 5 17 543 e 4100.77 6718.85 66 60 Madin Stratifie 41.013 -67.314
el13799 MOC1 241 106 5 17 618 s 4102.05 6720.89 67 60 Lough Stratifie 41.034 -67.348
el13799 MOC1 241 106 5 17 715 e 4102.28 6719.38 66 60 Lough Stratifie 41.038 -67.323
el13799 Seabird 36 106 5 17 758 s 4101.9 6721.0 67 62 Mannin Stratifie 41.0315 -67.350
el13799 CTD/Pu 37 106 5 17 815 s 4102.0 6721.6 67 62 Incze Stratifie 41.0327 -67.360
el13799 MOC10 242 106 5 17 1052 s 4101.50 6722.70 66 60 Madin Stratifie Cloudy, 41.025 -67.378
el13799 MOC10 242 106 5 17 1145 e 4102.20 6720.60 66 60 Madin Stratifie 41.037 -67.343
el13799 MOC1 243 106 5 17 1227 s 4102.09 6720.90 67 60 Lough Stratifie Had to 41.035 -67.348
el13799 MOC1 243 106 5 17 1324 e 4103.15 6719.52 67 60 Lough Stratifie 41.053 -67.325
el13799 Seabird 38 106 5 17 1408 s 4102.12 6720.82 66 62 Mannin Stratifie 41.0353 -67.347
el13799 CTD/Pu 39 106 5 17 1420 s 4102.14 6720.79 66 61 Incze Stratifie 41.0357 -67.346
el13799 MOC1 244 106 5 17 1822 s 4102.00 6720.80 66 60 Lough Stratifie Sunny. 41.033 -67.347
el13799 MOC1 244 106 5 17 1936 e 4102.30 6719.00 67 60 Lough Stratifie 41.038 -67.317
el13799 Seabird 40 106 5 17 2002 s 4101.90 6720.96 67 62 Mannin Stratifie 41.0317 -67.349
el13799 CTD/Pu 41 106 5 17 2016 s 4102.01 6721.24 67 63 Incze Stratifie 41.0335 -67.354
el13799 MOC10 245 106 5 17 2239 s 4101.30 6722.60 68 60 Madin Stratifie 52 41.022 -67.377
el13799 MOC10 245 106 5 17 2331 e 4102.20 6720.60 67 60 Madin Stratifie 41.037 -67.343
el13899 MOC1/4 250 100 5 18 1 e 4106.20 6723.00 60 55 Lough Front 41.103 -67.383
el13899 MOC1 246 100 5 18 20 s 4102.05 6721.00 67 60 Lough front Had to 41.034 -67.350
el13899 MOC1 246 100 5 18 115 e 4102.05 6721.00 66 60 Lough front 41.034 -67.350
el13899 Seabird 42 106 5 18 154 s 4102.06 6720.79 67 62 Mannin Stratifie 41.0343 -67.346
el13899 MOC1 247 106 5 18 609 s 4101.81 6720.88 67 60 Lough Stratifie Had to 41.030 -67.348
el13899 MOC1 247 106 5 18 704 e 4059.50 6720.50 66 60 Lough Stratifie 40.992 -67.342
el13899 Seabird 43 106 5 18 815 s 4102.02 6721.06 67 62 Mannin Stratifie 41.0337 -67.351
el13899 CTD/Pu 44 106 5 18 832 s 4102.07 6721.68 66 62 Incze Stratifie 41.0345 -67.361
el13899 Seacat 064 106 5 18 1100 s 4102.6 6721.4 60 Lough Stratifie v 41.043 -67.357
el13899 Seacat 065 106 5 18 1126 s 4103.0 6721.7 64 Lough Stratifie v 41.050 -67.362
el13899 MOC1 248 100 5 18 1225 s 4105.74 6723.63 60 60 Lough Front Winch 41.096 -67.394
el13899 MOC1 248 100 5 18 1324 e 4107.25 6721.35 58 60 Lough Front 41.121 -67.356
el13899 Seabird 45 106 5 18 1424 s 4105.61 6723.42 61 56 Mannin ? 41.0935 -67.390
el13899 CTD/Pu 46 106 5 18 1436 s 4105.79 6723.24 61 52 Incze ? 41.0965 -67.387
el13899 MOC1 249 100 5 18 1842 s 4105.10 6723.50 60 55 Lough Front Advance 41.085 -67.392
el13899 MOC1 249 100 5 18 2004 e 4103.00 6721.00 60 55 Lough Front 41.050 -67.350
el13899 Seabird 47 100 5 18 2049 s 4105.59 6723.92 60 52 Mannin Front 41.0932 -67.398
el13899 CTD/Pu 48 100 5 18 2123 s 4105.64 6724.53 58 52 Incze Front 41.0940 -67.408
el13899 MOC1/4 250 100 5 18 2333 s 4105.70 6723.80 60 55 Lough Front Low 41.095 -67.397
el13999 MOC1 251 100 5 19 121 s 4105.62 6723.73 62 55 Lough Front Turned 41.094 -67.396
el13999 MOC1 251 100 5 19 218 e 4105.99 6720.89 61 55 Lough Front 41.100 -67.348
el13999 Seabird 49 100 5 19 304 s 4105.62 6723.55 61 55 Mannin Front 41.0937 -67.392
el13999 Drifter 2342 100 5 19 408 e 4107.90 6720.50 56 13 Mannin Front recovery 41.132 -67.342
el13999 Drifter 2002 100 5 19 510 e 4106.80 6719.70 58 25 Mannin Front recovery 41.113 -67.328
el13999 MOC1 252 100 5 19 614 s 4107.74 6720.34 56 50 Lough Front 41.129 -67.339
el13999 MOC1 252 100 5 19 713 e 4105.00 6718.40 59 50 Lough Front 41.083 -67.307
el13999 Seabird 50 100 5 19 827 s 4105.67 6723.58 60 51 Mannin Front 41.0945 -67.393
el13999 CTD/Pu 51 100 5 19 838 s 4105.59 6723.90 60 52 Incze Front 41.0932 -67.398
el13999 MOC1/4 253 100 5 19 1049 s 4105.80 6723.80 60 55 Lough Front Sunny. 41.097 -67.397
el13999 MOC1/4 253 100 5 19 1113 e 4106.50 6723.40 59 55 Lough Front 41.108 -67.390
el13999 MOC1 254 100 5 19 1219 s 4105.65 6723.58 60 55 Lough Front Forgot 41.094 -67.393
el13999 MOC1 254 100 5 19 1317 e 4106.98 6721.23 59 55 Lough Front 41.116 -67.354
el13999 CTD/Pu 52 100 5 19 1421 s 4105.68 6723.56 61 56 Incze Front 41.0947 -67.392
el13999 MOC1/4 255 100 5 19 1613 s 4105.70 6723.20 60 55 Lough Front Sunny. 41.095 -67.387
el13999 MOC1/4 255 100 5 19 1639 e 4105.60 6721.90 60 55 Lough Front 41.093 -67.365
el13999 MOC1 256 100 5 19 1830 s 4105.60 6723.60 60 55 Lough Front 41.093 -67.393
el13999 MOC1 256 100 5 19 1948 e 4103.50 6720.50 62 55 Lough Front 41.058 -67.342
el13999 CTD/Pu 53 100 5 19 2043 s 4105.78 6723.71 61 57 Incze Incze 41.096 -67.395
el13999 MOC1/4 257 100 5 19 2229 s 4105.60 6724.10 60 55 Lough Front 41.093 -67.402
el13999 MOC1/4 257 100 5 19 2253 e 4105.80 6723.60 59 55 Lough Front 41.097 -67.393
el14099 MOC1 258 100 5 20 32 s 4105.69 6723.72 61 55 Lough Front 41.095 -67.395
el14099 MOC1 258 100 5 20 129 e 4107.20 6721.70 59 55 Lough Front 41.120 -67.362
el14099 Drifter 871 0 5 20 430 e 4110.30 6740.60 51 5 Mannin Mixed Recover 41.172 -67.677
el14099 Drifter 891 0 5 20 600 e 4111.10 6730.50 41 23 Mannin Mixed Recover 41.185 -67.508
el14099 Seacat 066 110 5 20 610 s 4112.0 6730.6 43 Lough Mixed_ v 41.200 -67.510
el14099 MOC1 259 100 5 20 726 s 4105.45 6723.69 60 55 Lough Front 41.091 -67.395
el14099 MOC1 259 100 5 20 829 e 4103.40 6722.00 60 55 Lough Front 41.057 -67.367
el14099 CTD/Pu 54 100 5 20 927 s 4105.6 6723.70 61 56 Incze Front no CTD 41.094 -67.392
el14099 MOC1 260 100 5 20 1135 s 4105.50 6723.90 60 55 Lough Front Recover 41.092 -67.398
el14099 MOC1 260 100 5 20 1231 e 4105.57 6723.21 60 55 Lough Front 41.093 -67.387
el14099 CTD/Pu 55 100 5 20 1338 s 4105.64 6723.50 61 56 Incze Front CTD 41.094 -67.392
el14099 CTD/Pu 56 100 5 20 1737 s 4105.48 6723.32 60 55 Incze Front 41.091 -67.389
el14099 CTD/Pu 57 100 5 20 2317 s 4105.39 6723.82 60 56 Incze Front 41.090 -67.397
el14199 Drifter 2002 0 5 21 630 e 4102.40 6730.80 65 25 Mannin Mixed Recover 41.040 -67.513
el14199 Drifter 2342 0 5 21 740 e 4059.60 6735.10 65 13 Mannin Mixed Recover 40.993 -67.585
el14199 Drifter 931 0 5 21 1000 e 4054.90 6739.10 67 8 Mannin Mixed Recover 40.915 -67.652
el14199 Drifter 3932 0 5 21 1700 e 4057.50 6723.30 74 33 Mannin Mixed Recover 40.958 -67.388
el14299 CTD/Pu 59 98 5 22 149 s 4100.04 6719.76 71 66 Incze Strat_d 41.001 -67.329
el14299 CTD/Pu 60 99 5 22 235 s 4102.13 6720.95 67 62 Incze Strat_d 41.036 -67.349
el14299 CTD/Pu 61 100 5 22 313 s 4103.90 6722.26 65 61 Incze Strat_d 41.065 -67.371
el14299 CTD/Pu 62 101 5 22 350 s 4105.65 6723.70 60 57 Incze Front_d 41.094 -67.395
el14299 CTD/Pu 63 102 5 22 424 s 4107.19 6725.02 58 54 Incze Front_d 41.120 -67.417
el14299 CTD/Pu 64 103 5 22 502 s 4109.07 6726.32 55 51 Incze Mixed_ 41.151 -67.439
el14299 CTD/Pu 65 103 5 22 543 s 4110.79 6727.60 48 42 Incze Mixed_ 41.180 -67.460
el14299 CTD/Pu 66 103 5 22 656 s 4112.50 6728.96 43 41 Incze Mixed_ 41.208 -67.483
el14299 Drifter 872 0 5 22 1012 s 4106.80 6717.80 59 13 Mannin Mixed Deploy 41.113 -67.297
el14299 Seacat 067 106 5 22 1115 s 4103.6 6735.0 66 65 Sell Stratifie w/Reev 41.060 -67.583
el14299 Drifter 2343 106 5 22 1600 s 4103.05 6722.14 65 8 Mannin Front Deploy 41.051 -67.369
el14299 Drifter 2003 0 5 22 1615 s 4103.05 6722.14 65 33 Mannin Front Deploy 41.051 -67.369
el14299 MOC1 263 106 5 22 1833 s 4102.10 6721.10 66 60 Lough Stratifie Sun. 41.035 -67.352
el14299 MOC1 263 106 5 22 1939 e 4103.40 6721.50 65 60 Lough Stratifie 41.057 -67.358
el14299 CTD/Pu 67 103 5 22 2015 s 4101.6 6721.0 67 56 Incze Strat_d 41.027 -67.351
el14299 MOC1/4 264 106 5 22 2244 s 4101.60 6720.70 68 60 Lough Stratifie 41.027 -67.345
el14299 MOC1/4 264 106 5 22 2311 e 4101.50 6722.00 68 60 Lough Stratifie 41.025 -67.367
el14399 MOC1 265 106 5 23 9 s 4102.14 6720.83 67 60 Lough Stratifie Had to 41.036 -67.347
el14399 MOC1 265 106 5 23 109 e 4103.14 6723.83 67 60 Lough Stratifie 41.052 -67.397
el14399 CTD/Pu 68 106 5 23 204 s 4102.0 6721.0 67 62 Incze Stratifie 41.033 -67.351
el14399 MOC1 266 106 5 23 606 s 4102.09 6721.00 67 60 Lough Stratifie Angle 41.035 -67.350
el14399 MOC1 266 106 5 23 707 e 4100.42 6723.12 68 60 Lough Stratifie 41.007 -67.385
el14399 CTD/Pu 69 106 5 23 804 s 4101.9 6721.0 66 56 Incze Stratifie 41.031 -67.349
el14399 MOC1/4 267 106 5 23 1017 s 4102.60 6720.50 65 60 Lough Stratifie No 41.043 -67.342
el14399 MOC1/4 267 106 5 23 1051 e 4103.00 6721.60 65 60 Lough Stratifie 41.050 -67.360
el14399 MOC1 268 106 5 23 1215 s 4101.81 6721.06 67 60 Lough Stratifie No 41.030 -67.351
el14399 MOC1 268 106 5 23 1311 e 4103.49 6723.72 64 60 Lough Stratifie 41.058 -67.395
el14399 CTD/Pu 70 106 5 23 1430 s 4102.1 6721.1 67 56 Incze Stratifie 41.035 -67.351
el14399 MOC1/4 269 106 5 23 1620 s 4102.30 6721.20 67 60 Lough Stratifie Dead 41.038 -67.353
el14399 MOC1/4 269 106 5 23 1648 e 4102.60 6723.00 66 60 Lough Stratifie 41.043 -67.383
el14399 MOC1 270 106 5 23 1829 s 4102.20 6721.00 67 60 Lough Stratifie Increme 41.037 -67.350
el14399 MOC1 270 106 5 23 1936 e 4102.50 6723.90 66 60 Lough Stratifie 41.042 -67.398
el14399 CTD/Pu 71 106 5 23 2013 s 4102.1 6721.4 66 61 Incze Stratifie 41.035 -67.356
el14499 MOC1 271 106 5 24 13 s 4102.00 6721.18 66 60 Lough Stratifie 41.033 -67.353
el14499 MOC1 271 106 5 24 108 e 4102.08 6719.12 67 60 Lough Stratifie 41.035 -67.319
el14499 MOC10 272 106 5 24 310 s 4102.13 6721.17 67 60 Madin Stratifie BAD 41.036 -67.353
el14499 MOC10 272 106 5 24 337 e 4101.47 6719.99 67 60 Madin Stratifie 41.025 -67.333
el14499 MOC1 272 106 5 24 619 s 4102.18 6721.31 67 60 Lough Stratifie 41.036 -67.355
el14499 MOC1 272 106 5 24 714 e 4101.81 6719.18 67 60 Lough Stratifie 41.030 -67.320
el14499 CTD/Pu 72 106 5 24 823 s 4102.3 6720.9 66 61 Incze Stratifie 41.039 -67.349
el14499 MOC1 273 106 5 24 1222 s 4101.98 6720.87 68 60 Lough Stratifie 41.033 -67.348
el14499 MOC1 273 106 5 24 1313 e 4101.98 6720.87 68 60 Lough Stratifie 41.033 -67.348
el14499 CTD/Pu 73 106 5 24 1356 s 4102.0 6720.9 66 54 Incze Stratifie 41.034 -67.348
el14499 MOC10 274 106 5 24 1617 s 4102.00 6721.10 67 60 Madin Stratifie Changin 41.033 -67.352
el14499 MOC10 274 106 5 24 1702 e 4101.40 6721.40 67 60 Madin Stratifie 41.023 -67.357
el14499 CTD/Pu 74 106 5 24 1815 s 4102.3 6721.0 67 61 Incze Stratifie 41.039 -67.350
el14499 Drifter 2003 0 5 24 2100 e 4102.30 6730.90 62 33 Mannin Mixed Recover 41.038 -67.515
el14499 Seacat 068 111 5 24 2150 e 4102.3 6730.8 62 Lough Strat_d v 41.038 -67.513
el14499 Drifter 2343 0 5 24 2234 e 4102.40 6727.90 61 8 Mannin Mixed Recover 41.040 -67.465
el14499 Seacat 069 112 5 24 2345 s 4104.6 6728.0 60 Lough Front_d v 41.077 -67.467
el14599 Drifter 872 0 5 25 28 e 4106.40 6729.10 56 13 Mannin Mixed Recover 41.107 -67.485
el14599 Seacat 070 113 5 25 36 s 4106.4 6729.0 57 Lough Mixed w 41.107 -67.483
el14599 Seabird 75 114 5 25 1145 s 4110.1 6718.5 54 50 Townse Mixed 41.169 -67.308
el14599 Seabird 76 115 5 25 1238 s 4108.5 6718.2 57 53 Townse Mixed 41.141 -67.304
el14599 Seabird 77 116 5 25 1310 s 4107.3 6717.5 58 53 Townse Mixed 41.122 -67.292
el14599 Seabird 78 117 5 25 1339 s 4106.2 6717.1 59 56 Townse Mixed 41.103 -67.285
el14599 Seabird 79 118 5 25 1423 s 4105.4 6715.7 61 57 Townse Front_d 41.091 -67.262
el14599 Seabird 80 119 5 25 1459 s 4104.3 6715.8 64 62 Townse Strat_d 41.071 -67.263
el14599 Seabird 81 120 5 25 1547 s 4102.8 6714.7 67 63 Townse Strat_d 41.046 -67.245
el14599 Seabird 82 121 5 25 1731 s 4109.0 6720.8 56 52 Townse Mixed_ 41.151 -67.347
el14599 Drifter 892 0 5 25 1743 s 4109.20 6721.00 57 13 Mannin Mixed Deploy 41.153 -67.350
el14599 Drifter 873 0 5 25 1747 s 4109.20 6721.00 57 33 Mannin Mixed Deploy 41.153 -67.350
el14599 Drifter 2344 0 5 25 1900 s 4106.60 6717.80 61 33 Mannin Stratifie Deploy 41.110 -67.297
el14599 Drifter 932 0 5 25 1900 s 4106.60 6717.80 61 8 Mannin Stratifie Deploy 41.110 -67.297
el14699 MOC10 275 100 5 26 22 s 4105.92 6721.61 61 55 Madin Front 41.099 -67.360
el14699 MOC10 275 100 5 26 106 e 4103.66 6722.38 60 55 Madin Front 41.061 -67.373
el14699 MOC1 276 100 5 26 308 s 4105.11 6722.25 62 55 Lough Front 41.085 -67.371
el14699 MOC1 276 100 5 26 401 e 4103.67 6721.51 62 55 Lough Front 41.061 -67.359
el14699 MOC1 277 100 5 26 903 s 4106.20 6722.90 60 55 Lough Front 41.103 -67.382
el14699 MOC1 277 100 5 26 1004 e 4104.30 6720.70 61 55 Lough Front 41.072 -67.345
el14699 CTD/Pu 83 100 5 26 1050 s 4104.9 6721.6 62 57 Incze Front 41.081 -67.360
el14699 MOC10 278 100 5 26 1242 s 4105.00 6721.56 60 50 Madin Front 41.083 -67.359
el14699 MOC10 278 100 5 26 1330 e 4102.93 6720.95 60 50 Madin Front 41.049 -67.349
el14699 MOC1 279 100 5 26 1507 s 4104.91 6722.03 63 55 Lough Front Net 41.082 -67.367
el14699 MOC1 279 100 5 26 1606 e 4103.10 6721.80 63 55 Lough Front 41.052 -67.363
el14699 CTD/Pu 84 100 5 26 1656 s 4106.0 6722.3 60 56 Incze Front 41.100 -67.372
el14699 MOC10 280 100 5 26 1854 s 4106.13 6722.93 61 55 Madin Front 41.102 -67.382
el14699 MOC10 280 100 5 26 1941 e 4105.53 6721.88 61 55 Madin Front 41.092 -67.365
el14699 MOC1 281 100 5 26 2110 s 4107.30 6722.60 59 55 Lough Front 41.122 -67.377
el14699 MOC1 281 100 5 26 2226 e 4107.30 6722.60 61 55 Lough Front 41.122 -67.377
el14699 CTD/Pu 85 100 5 26 2341 s 4106.00 6722.20 60 55 Mannin Stratifie 41.100 -67.370
el14799 MOC10 282 100 5 27 51 s 4105.77 6719.51 61 55 Madin Front 41.096 -67.325
el14799 MOC10 282 100 5 27 129 e 4103.28 6719.86 60 55 Madin Front 41.055 -67.331
el14799 MOC1 283 100 5 27 304 s 4105.10 6721.86 62 55 Lough Front 41.085 -67.364
el14799 MOC1 283 100 5 27 359 e 4102.55 6722.88 65 55 Lough Front 41.043 -67.381
el14799 MOC10 284 100 5 27 507 s 4105.43 6722.62 61 50 Madin Front 41.091 -67.377
el14799 MOC10 284 100 5 27 544 e 4103.57 6722.84 61 50 Madin Front 41.059 -67.381
el14799 Seacat 071 100 5 27 657 s 4106.0 6722.3 60 51 Sell Front w/Reev 41.100 -67.372
el14799 MOC1 285 100 5 27 903 s 4107.30 6722.70 59 55 Lough Front 41.122 -67.378
el14799 MOC1 285 100 5 27 1010 e 4106.20 6720.70 60 55 Lough Front 41.103 -67.345
el14799 CTD/Pu 86 100 5 27 1047 s 4104.90 6721.80 61 55 Mannin Stratifie 41.082 -67.363
el14799 MOC1/4 286 100 5 27 1306 s 4106.66 6722.76 60 55 Lough Front No net 41.111 -67.379
el14799 MOC1/4 286 100 5 27 1331 e 4105.67 6721.60 60 55 Lough Front 41.095 -67.360
el14799 MOC1 287 100 5 27 1538 s 4106.07 6721.76 60 55 Lough Front 41.101 -67.363
el14799 MOC1 287 100 5 27 1642 e 4105.09 6723.35 60 55 Lough Front 41.085 -67.389
el14799 CTD/Pu 87 100 5 27 1725 s 4106.10 6722.40 60 55 Mannin Stratifie 41.102 -67.373
el14799 MOC1/4 288 100 5 27 1915 s 4106.10 6722.00 60 55 Lough Front 41.102 -67.367
el14799 MOC1/4 288 100 5 27 1942 e 4105.90 6723.30 60 55 Lough Front 41.098 -67.388
el14799 MOC1 289 100 5 27 2114 s 4106.86 6722.38 61 55 Lough Front 41.114 -67.373
el14799 MOC1 289 100 5 27 2220 e 4104.97 6720.89 61 55 Lough Front 41.083 -67.348
el14799 CTD/Pu 88 100 5 27 2250 s 4105.80 6722.30 61 55 Mannin Stratifie 41.097 -67.372
el14899 CTD/Pu 89 95 5 28 110 s 4108.80 6726.00 60 45 Mannin Stratifie 41.147 -67.433
el14899 MOC1/4 290 95 5 28 305 s 4109.23 6726.35 55 50 Lough Mixed 41.154 -67.439
el14799 MOC1/4 290 95 5 28 327 e 4108.49 6727.72 55 50 Lough Mixed 41.142 -67.462
el14899 MOC1 291 95 5 28 407 s 4108.53 6725.94 55 50 Lough Mixed 41.142 -67.432
el14899 MOC1 291 95 5 28 454 e 4106.74 6728.67 55 50 Lough Mixed 41.112 -67.478
el14899 MOC1/4 292 95 5 28 636 s 4108.91 6726.12 55 50 Lough Mixed 41.149 -67.435
el14899 MOC1/4 292 95 5 28 658 e 4108.53 6727.57 55 50 Lough Mixed 41.142 -67.460
el14899 MOC1 293 95 5 28 920 s 4109.10 6725.90 55 50 Lough Mixed no end 41.152 -67.432
el14899 MOC1 293 95 5 28 1019 e 4109.10 6725.90 55 50 Lough Mixed 41.152 -67.432
el14899 Drifter 892 0 5 28 1101 e 4108.20 6725.90 56 13 Mannin Mixed Recover 41.137 -67.432
el14899 Drifter 873 0 5 28 1128 e 4109.70 6724.70 54 33 Mannin Mixed Recover 41.162 -67.412
el14899.12 Drifter 933 0 5 28 1200 s 4107.60 6723.00 58 8 Manning Stratified Recovery 41.127 -67.383
el14899.13 Drifter 2344 0 5 28 1245 s 4104.20 6724.70 62 33 Manning Stratified Recovery 41.070 -67.412


Appendix II. List of Personnel

Scientific

Dr. R. Gregory Lough, NOAA, Ch. Scientist

Dr. Lew Incze, Bigelow Laboratory

Betsy Broughton NMFS, Woods Hole.

Elaine Caldarone NMFS, Narragansett

Phil Cootey, UMass Boston

Jeanne Burns NMFS, Narragansett

Dr. Grace Klein-MacPhee, URI

Toni Chute NMFS, Woods Hole

Ford Dye, Bigelow Laboratory

Karen Fisher Grad. Student, Cornell University

Marie Kiladis NMFS, Woods Hole

Jim Manning NMFS, Woods Hole

Malinda Sutor NMFS, Woods Hole

Dr. Cisco Werner Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill

Nick Wolff, Bigelow Laboratory

Debbie Smith, Maine Maritime Academy

Jenifer Austin, WHOI Internship

Dr. Anne Sell, WHOI

Erich Horgan, WHOI

Sean Ament, San Francisco State University





















Ship's Crew

Master George Gunther

Chief Mate Tony Monocandiles

2nd mate Matt Skelly

Chief Eng. Steve Hyde

Asst. Eng. Bill Reilly

2nd Asst. Eng. Kurt Hayer

Steward Dave Kervin

Seaman Chris Malvern

Seaman Joe Hart

Seaman Dave Foote

Marine Tech. Don Cucchihara

E.T. James Gordon

ET Noah

Steward's Asst. Jamie Sizemore 

Appendix III. List of Figures

Figure 1a. Seabird19 CTD cast numbers (top) and station numbers (bottom) on EL9905. Note these are all locations of bongo hauls ( el9905sta.ps, JM).

Figure 1b. Cod (top) and Haddock distribution (bottom) on 11-13 May 1999 from bongo net hauls. (el9905ch.ps, JM).

Figure 2. Drifter deployments during cluster #1 (top) and cluster #2 (bottom). See Table 1 for full description of deployment times and depths (alldrft12.ps, JM).

Figure 3. Drifter deployments during cluster #3 (top) and cluster #4 (bottom). See Table 1 for full description of deployment times and depths (alldrft34.ps, JM).

Figure 4.Shipboard alongtrack record of fluorescence, sst, salinity, and wind. Note the lighter line in the bottommost panel represents the northward component of the wind (mayat130.ps*, KF).

Figure 5. Shipboard alongtrack record of atmospheric pressure, air temperature, and radiation. (mayatmp130.ps*, KF).

Figure 6a. Shipboard alongtrack record of temperature (bold) and salinity (gray) as a function of tidal flow direction. Estimates of tidal velocity (based on Candela's empirical relations derived from previous ADCP records in the area) is indicated by a thin line. The ranges of each variable is denoted on the title line. Each panel represents another tidal cycle ( maytide6.ps*, KF).

Figure 6b.Shipboard alongtrack record of temperature (bold) and salinity (gray) as a function of tidal flow direction. Estimates of tidal velocity (based on Candela's empirical relations derived from previous ADCP records in the area) is indicated by a thin line. The ranges of each variable is denoted on the title line. Each panel represents another tidal cycle ( maytide12.ps*, KF).

Figure 6c.Shipboard alongtrack record of temperature (bold) and salinity (gray) as a function of tidal flow direction. Estimates of tidal velocity (based on Candela's empirical relations derived from previous ADCP records in the area) is indicated by a thin line. The ranges of each variable is denoted on the title line. Each panel represents another tidal cycle ( maytide18.ps*, KF).

Figure 6d Shipboard alongtrack record of temperature (bold) and salinity (gray) as a function of tidal flow direction. Estimates of tidal velocity (based on Candela's empirical relations derived from previous ADCP records in the area) is indicated by a thin line. The ranges of each variable is denoted on the title line. Each panel represents another tidal cycle ( maytide24.ps*, KF).

Figure 6e Shipboard alongtrack record of temperature (bold) and salinity (gray) as a function of tidal flow direction. Estimates of tidal velocity (based on Candela's empirical relations derived from previous ADCP records in the area) is indicated by a thin line. The ranges of each variable is denoted on the title line. Each panel represents another tidal cycle ( maytide30.ps*, KF).

Figure 6f Shipboard alongtrack record of temperature (bold) and salinity (gray) as a function of tidal flow direction. Estimates of tidal velocity (based on Candela's empirical relations derived from previous ADCP records in the area) is indicated by a thin line. The ranges of each variable is denoted on the title line. Each panel represents another tidal cycle ( maytide36.ps*, KF).

Figure 7 Estimates of vertically-averaged tidal velocity (based on Candela's empirical relations derived from previous ADCP records in the area). Spring tide apparently occurred at day 138. The n/s and e/w components are presented in the top and bottom panel, respectively (maytidv130.ps*, KF).

Figure 8a. ADCP observations of current for the week-long period of ADCP operation during EL9905. The three panels represent eastward flow, northwardflow, and volume backscatter, respectively. (a1_con.ps*, JM).

Figure 8b. ADCP record of vertically averaged current (a1_ts_all.ps*, JM).

Figure 8c. Shipboard attempt at Candela detiding. Both the absolute velocity vectors (top) and the estimate of detided velocity vectors (bottom) are presented (a1_vec.ps*, JM).

Figure 9. Cross-bank CTD transect corresponding to cast 22-29 (stations 57-63). Drogues were deployed where indicated (s3.ps, JM).

Figure10a. Surface and bottom temperature distributions for GLOBEC Process cruise EL9905 (el9905t.ps, JM).

Figure10b. Surface and bottom temperature anomalies for GLOBEC Process cruise EL9905.

(el9905tan.ps, CB).

Figure 10c.Surface and bottom salinity distributions for GLOBEC Process cruise EL9905.

(el9905s.ps, JM).

Figure 10d.Surface and bottom salinity anomalies for GLOBEC Process cruise EL9905.

(el9905san.ps, CB).

Figure 10e. Cross-bank temperature sections from the SEABIRD/Bongo CTD survey 11-14 May 1999. CAST numbers are listed across the top of each section. See Figure 1. (t19.ps, JM).

Figure 10f. Cross-bank salinity sections from the SEABIRD/Bongo CTD survey 11-14 May 1999. CAST numbers are listed across the top of each section. See Figure 1. (s19.ps, JM)

Figure 10g. Cross-bank sigma-t sections from the SEABIRD/Bongo CTD survey 11-14 May 1999. CAST numbers are listed across the top of each section. See Figure 1. (d19.ps).

Figure 11a. Individual Seabird 911 CTD profiles 1-30. Note the range of temperature and salinity are 2 and 0.4 PSU, respectively (pro130.ps, JM).

Figure 11b. Individual Seabird 911 CTD profiles 31-60. Data is missing for cast 55 and 58. Note the range of temperature and salinity are 2 and 0.4 PSU, respectively (pro3160.ps, JM).

Figure 11c. Individual Seabird 911 CTD profiles 61-89. Note the range of temperature and salinity are 2 and 0.4 PSU, respectively (pro6189.ps, JM).



Figure 11d. Individual Seabird 911 CTD profiles 1-30. Note the range of fluorescence and sigmat is 0.4 volts and 0.5 sigmat units, respectively (profd130.ps, JM).

Figure 11e. Individual Seabird 911 CTD profiles 31-60. Data is missing for cast 55 and 58. Note the range of fluorescence and sigmat is 0.4 volts and 0.1 sigmat units , respectively (pro3160fd.ps, JM).

Figure 11f. Individual Seabird 911 CTD profiles 61-89. Note the range of fluorescence and sigmat is 0.8 volts and 0.5 sigmat units, respectively (pro6189fd.ps, JM).

Figure 11g. Individual Seabird 911 CTD profiles 1-30. Note the range of PAR light and Transmitted light is 4000 and 10 volts units, respectively (pro130lt.ps, JM).

Figure 11h. Individual Seabird 911 CTD profiles 31-60. Data is missing for cast 55 and 58. Note the range of PAR light and Transmitted light is 2000 and 10 volts units, respectively (pro3160lt.ps, JM).

Figure 11i. Individual Seabird 911 CTD profiles 61-89. Note the range of PAR light and Transmitted light is 2000 and 40 volts units, respectively (pro6189lt.ps, JM).

Figure 12a. Cross-bank SEABIRD 911 temperature transects along the mooring line (t911.ps, JM).

Figure 12b. Cross-bank SEABIRD 911 salinity transect along the mooring line (s911.ps, JM).

Figure 12c. Cross-bank SEABIRD 911 sigma-t transect along the mooring line (d911.ps, JM).

Figure 12d. Cross-bank SEABIRD 911 fluorescence transect along the mooring line (f911.ps, JM).

Figure 13a. MOC1 hauls vs tidal phase on EL9905. Note that the maximum eastward flow is nearly concurrent with the maximum on-bank excursion of the tide and the minimum (negative) flow is associated with the off-bank excursion. The observed ADCP record is plotted as a dotted line and the Candela estimate is plotted as a solid line (evmoc1ts.ps, JM).

Figure 13b Distribution of MOC1 cast vs. tidal phase. (evmoc1b.ps, JM).

Figure 14a. Satellite derived SST for 10 May at 1900Z with mooring and drifter positions overlaid. The colormap is chosen to highlight the mid-shelf eddy that occurs between the 60 and 100m isobath (may10_1900.ps, JM).

Figure 14b. Satellite derived SST for 15 May at 1900Z (left panel) with mooring positions (green dots) overlaid. The mid-shelf eddy seen on the previous image (10 May) is still visible. Satellite derived SST for 17 May at 1900Z and 5 June at 0700Z follow in the next two panels. The main features then are eddies forming along the tidal front. The slope water intrusion seen especially on 17 May had fully receded by 5 June.

Figure 15. Flow-chart of shore-based real-time data assimilation system. The larger ADCIRC model grid provided boundary conditions for the smaller QUODDY Bank150 grid (flowA_poster.ps, B.Blanton).

Figure 16. Flow-chart of shipboard real-time data assimilation system (flowQ_poster.ps, B.Blanton).

Figure 17a. Pleurobrachia collected along bongo grid 5/11-5/13 on EL9905 (pleuro1.ps, EH).

Figure 17b. Pleurobrachia distribution by net at station 106 (pleuro2.ps, EH).

Figure17c. Pleurobrachia collected in the MOC-1 at station 106 (pleuro3.ps, EH).