Cruise Report

R/V ENDEAVOR Cruise EN256

Woods Hole to Georges Bank to Woods Hole

US State Department Cruise No. 94-16

26 October - 31 October, 1994

Acknowledgments

This report was prepared by Jim Irish and Ann Martin from cruise notes and logs as a first draft document of the activities, positions, data collected, etc. We gratefully acknowledge the excellent support provided by the Captain and crew of the R/V ENDEAVOR. Their hard work at getting the moorings deployed properly and taking the supporting CTD profiles helped us accomplish our primary scientific goals. We thank Jim Bisagni of the NOAA Remote Sensing Laboratory of Narragansett, RI for the satellite sea surface temperature image.

The GLOBEC research effort is sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Support for the Long-Term Moored Program as part of the U.S. GLOBEC Northwest Atlantic/Georges Bank Study was provided by NSF research grant OCE-9313670. All data in this report are to be considered preliminary.

List of Figures:

Figure 1: Ship's track of R/V ENDEAVOR Cruise EN256 from Woods Hole to Georges Bank and back from the ship's GPS log. The 100 meter contour is plotted to outline Georges Bank. The Crest and Southern Flank mooring sites are identified. The main Long-Term Moored Section (through the Crest and Southern Flank sites) and Stratification Section (to the west) lines are also evident.

Figure 2. Design of the two guard moorings deployed at Southern Flank site to help guard the bottom-mounted ADCP and pressure instrumentation. The mooring uses traditional chain hardware.

Figure 3. Southern Flank mooring positions. The bottom contours run from the northeast to the Southwest at about 60. The main scientific mooring (to the west) and the ADCP are aligned along this contour. The two guard buoys are located to the east on either side of the contour.

Figure 4. Schematic plan of the Southern Flank scientific mooring and ADCP instruments as deployed. The sensor spacing is at 5 m nominal depth increments; the sensor depths as measured by the array under tension are given in

Figure 5. Attenuation of surface wave amplitude and pressure with depth at the Southern Flank mooring site.

Figure 6. Schematic plan of the Crest mooring. The elastic tethers should improve mooring life, and buoy dynamic response to the waves. The tension in the mooring line at the buoy is measured by a load cell, and statistics of the tension averaged over one hour.

Figure 7. PDR plot of Stratification Section transition from smoothly decreasing bottom depth to ridge topography.

Figure 8. First Long-Term CTD Section. Temperature (top) and salinity (bottom) summary of the 12 profiles taken (each numbered for identity) are shown.

Figure 9. First Long-Term CTD Section. T-S summary plot of the data shown in Figure 7 with the stations identified.

Figure 10. Sea surface temperature from 20 October 1994 from the NOAA Remote Sensing Laboratory at Narragansett, RI. The warm Gulf Stream water seen just off the bank is very evident, as is the cooler water coming out of the Gulf of Maine and moving down the shelf between the Crest and Atlantic waters.

Figure 11. First Long-Term CTD Section. Transmissometer (top) and fluorometer (bottom) summary of the 12 profiles taken. The profiles are numbered to assist identification.

Figure 12. Second Long-Term CTD Section. Temperature (top) and salinity (bottom) summary of the 12 profiles taken (each numbered for identity) are shown.

Figure 13. Second Long-Term CTD Section. Transmissometer (top) and fluorometer (bottom) summary of the 12 profiles taken. The profiles are numbered to assist identification.

Figure 14. Stratification CTD Section. Temperature (top) and salinity (bottom) summary of the 8 profiles taken (each numbered for identity) are shown.

Figure 15. Stratification CTD Section. Transmissometer (top) and fluorometer (bottom) summary of the 8 profiles taken. The profiles are numbered to assist identification.

List of Tables:

Table 1. GLOBEC Long-Term Mooring Positions

Table 2.Sensor IDs and Location

Table 3. ADCP Initialization Parameters

Table 4. CTD Station Sheets I

Table 5. CTD Station Sheets II

Table 6. CTD Station Sheets III

Purpose

The primary purpose of EN256 was to deploy instrumented buoys at two locations on Georges Bank for the start of the US GLOBEC Long-Term Moored Program. The primary site on the Southern Flank of Georges Bank has an instrumented science mooring, a bottom-mounted ADCP with temperature and pressure, and two guard moorings. The second mooring site on the Crest of Georges Bank is primarily an instrument test of the elastic tether mooring technology but does include some scientific sensors. Additionally, two CTD sections were taken through the two mooring sites from the Crest into the North Atlantic, and a third PDR and CTD section was made through the proposed Stratification Experiment sites.

Accomplishment Summary

The weather was good for the first two days, and the moorings were deployed without difficulty. The Southern Flank scientific buoy and two guard buoys were successfully deployed in 76 meters of water in a 300 m triangle. The scientific buoy had air temperature and Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) sensors in the air, and temperature and conductivity sensors at 5-meter depth increments in the water. Additionally, a bio-optical packages with transmissometer, fluorometer and PAR sensors were deployed at 10 and 40 meters depth on the mooring. The Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler/bottom pressure and temperature instrument was deployed within the protective triangle of the three buoys. Three one hour in situ calibration profile series were made with the Endeavor's Sea Bird CTD system to check operation and drift of the temperature, conductivity, fluorometer and transmissometer sensors. An engineering mooring with scientific sensors was deployed in 43 meters at the Crest of Georges Bank. This instrument had air temperature and PAR sensors, as well as sea surface temperature and salinity. To test and understand the dynamics of the elastic tether mooring technology utilized in these moorings, a load cell measuring the tension in the mooring cable was sampled at 1 Hz and the maximum, minimum, mean and standard deviation of these samples calculated each hour. The moorings are telemetering back hourly averages of all quantities plus system diagnostics daily via ARGOS and GOES satellites.

Two supportive CTD sections were made from the Crest of the bank into the North Atlantic one day apart passing through the two mooring sites. Then a PDR and CTD section was run through the proposed Stratification Experiment mooring sites to the west of the main mooring section to aid in final mooring design and construction for that experiment.

Cruise Results,

EN256 was successful in accomplishing all the proposed goals. Figure 1 shows the ship's track for the entire cruise. The ship went first to the Southern Flank site where we deployed the main scientific mooring, two guard buoys and the bottom-mounted ADCP. Then the ship went to the Crest site, did a detailed PDR survey, selected the exact Crest site, and deployed the Crest mooring. The ship took a CTD section from the top of the bank into the Atlantic, passing though the two mooring sites. The ship then steamed back up the line, and tested a bio-optical package on the CTD wire for several hours, and made another CTD section 22 hours after the first. The ship then deployed the bio-optical package on the CTD in deep water overnight. Finally, a combined CTD and PDR section was run up the stratification section line west of and parallel to the main long-term moored section. Then the ship steamed back into Woods Hole.

Southern Flank Science and Guard Buoy Mooring Deployment

The ship arrived at the Southern Flank of Georges Bank in excellent weather with seas of 1 to 2 feet and winds less than 10 knots. The first guard buoy and large instrumented buoy had been set up on deck ready to launch prior to departing port. The first guard buoy (see (Figure 2) was deployed as a marker in 76 meters of water (See Figure 3, and (Figure 4) has temperature and conductivity (salinity) sensors at 5-meter increments along the mooring cable as well as two bio-optical packages with fluorometer (for chlorophyll a), transmissometer and PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) sensors at 10 and 40 meters depth. The buoy also has air temperature and PAR sensors 3 meters above the air sea interface. The sensors and data system are powered by solar panels charging sealed gel cells through regulators to prevent overcharging and outgassing of the batteries. The data system controls the power to the sensors, digitizes the results, and averages the data for each sensor. The hourly averages of all sensors are recorded internally on PCMCIA SRAM (as a backup) and are relayed to shore daily by ARGOS and GOES satellites. These data are downloaded to computer at WHOI for processing and analysis, as well as for dissemination to other GLOBEC investigators. In this first deployment, the two bio-optical packages record their data internally, and no telemetry was attempted. The wires are present in the mooring cable for later telemetry of the data to the surface buoy and relay to shore via satellite. This scientific buoy was deployed about 285 m WSW of the guard buoy number one (see Figure 3 and Table 1).

After the scientific mooring was in place, the second guard buoy was deployed to make a triangle along the 76 m isobath (see Figure 3 and Table 1). The bottom in this region is quite flat and so there is no noticeable orientation. The bottom mounted ADCP was deployed in the middle of the three surface buoys, close to the main scientific mooring since the watch circle of this is less, due to the elastic tethers. In a 1.5 kt current (twice what is expected at this site), the guard buoy watch circles are about 37 meters radius and the main scientific mooring 19 m radius. The guard moorings also have chain at the bottom with a watch circle of 12 to 15 meters which the scientific mooring does not have. The final configuration of sensors is shown in Figure 3 and listed in Table 1. The sensor type, serial numbers and depths on the main scientific mooring are listed in Table 2.

Southern Flank ADCP and Bottom Pressure Deployment

To measure the currents as a function of depth, a bottom-mounted ADCP was deployed about 84 meters ENE of the main South Flank science mooring (see Figure 3). The bottom-mounted configuration was chosen over the buoy-mounted to increase the information that could be gathered from the individual beams for velocity analysis and for the spatial variability of the backscattered acoustic signal. There is a small improvement in velocity estimation using the bottom-mounted configuration. The ADCP initialization parameters used for the first 6-month deployment are listed in Table 3. The instrument was set with 1 meter vertical depth bins starting at 4 meters above bottom and going beyond the surface. The sampling was set to 2 seconds between pings to prevent aliasing with surface waves; 300 ping (10 minute) averages are computed every 30 minutes. The Doppler frequency shift is recorded for each bin (rather than converting the Doppler shift to velocity in earth coordinates) as well as the intensity of the backscattered signal.

To measure the tidal elevation and wave climate at the site, a Sea Data Model 635-11 Wave and Tide Recorder was deployed on the same bottom instrument frame as the ADCP. Previous narrow band ADCPs had provision for recording external temperature, conductivity and pressure sensors, but the present narrow band ADCP used here did not have this feature. Therefore, an existing Sea Data pressure recorder was modified by the addition of two counter cards to record the temperature of the Paroscientific pressure sensor as well as a Sea Bird Conductivity sensor. The basic sampling program records 15 minute averages of temperature, pressure and conductivity in solid state memory. The instrument also burst-samples the pressure sensor for 128 2 second samples every 6 hours to get a measure of the surface waves. Surface wave amplitude is attenuated with depth as shown in Figure 5, so a 3 second sample interval would not alias any surface waves at the bottom, and waves with periods greater than 6 seconds can be measured by dividing the obtained frequency spectrum by the frequency dependent attenuation shown in Figure 5. Unfortunately for this deployment, the conductivity counter card failed during final testing the day the ship was being loaded, and the conductivity measurement had to be abandoned for the first 6-month deployment. However, the temperature and pressure components as deployed appeared to be working properly.

Crest Mooring Deployment

The mooring deployed at the Crest of Georges Bank is largely an engineering mooring (Figure 6) with some environmental sensors. The environment at the crest of the Georges Bank has 1.5 kt tidal currents with typical 10 m significant waves (with peaks of 15 m in winter) superimposed. In order to keep a mooring in place, we believe that the elastic tether mooring technology is required. However, in order to check our model predictions for this mooring, we added a load cell in the mooring line to measure the tension in the cable. This instrument returns minimum, maximum, mean and standard deviation of the tension averaged over every hour. This data is telemetered to shore for evaluation. In addition air temperature, PAR and sea surface temperature and conductivity are recorded internally and telemetered back to shore via GOES and ARGOS satellites.

In order to find a satisfactory location for the Crest mooring, surveys were conducted on EN246 in June 1994. Based on these surveys a region was selected, and more detailed surveys were done on the deployment heading to select the exact location. After this was done, the buoy successfully deployed in 43 meters of water. The location of this mooring is listed in Table 1 and shown on the ship's track in Figure 1.

ARGOS Telemetry Check

Both of the instrumented buoys use both ARGOS and GOES telemetry. ARGOS runs independently of the timed GOES transmissions, and every hour new data is loaded into ARGOS and relayed to shore when an ARGOS satellite hears the buoy. This allows about 45% of the data to be collected. In addition, if the main data system fails, but there is still power in the buoy, the ARGOS system will continue to telemetry data so we are assured of buoy location, and have the indicator that the data is not being updated. Finally, the ARGOS satellites will position the buoy to determine if it has broken loose from its mooring, and if so to find it for recovery.

While we were doing CTD sections near the buoys, we were able to use our Telonics uplink receiver to check the operation of the buoys, and determine the battery voltages and status. Before this cruise we did not have time to program the receiving PC to normalize the data from the bits transmitted to geophysical and engineering units; this will be available for later cruises. Then this real-time readout of the data in geophysical units will to allow us to make an optimal check of the buoy system operation before the ship leaves the area. It can also be placed on other GLOBEC cruises to check out suspected mooring problems. Below is a representative ARGOS data set, gathered during the CTD section, for each buoy.

Crest Buoy:
Raw ARGOS Received:
  10-29-94  12:52:21  ID 11709  NA
  000 012 000 016  010 000 000 015
  005 084 154 207  000 129 001 026
  000 202 000 025  054 042 054 096
  005 228 004 220  007 244 005 076
Format:
  1. Day after system start
  2. GMT hour in day (time of data)
  Hourly Averages of:
  3.    Air Temperature
  4.    PAR
  5.    Sea Surface Temperature
  6.    Sea Surface Conductivity
  7.    Minimum Tension
  8.    Maximum Tension
  9.    Mean Tension
  10.  Standard Deviation of Tension
  11. Battery One on half hour
  12. Battery Two on half hour
  13. Status after last GOES Transmission
  14. Battery After last GOES Transmission
  15. System Temperature on half hour
  16. System Bus voltage on half hour

South Flank Buoy:
Raw ARGOS Received:
  10-28-94  17:29:54  ID 12778  NA
  000 003 000 020  010 060 001 087
  001 158 254 128  005 097 010 072
  003 131 006 047  250 237 006 077
  255 096 051 126  054 177 004 212

  10-28-94  17:31:44  ID 12778  NA
  000 003 000 021  010 082 001 050

  001 159 254 160  005 137 010 125
  004 063 006 006  251 222 008 024
  001 067 051 078  053 232 004 212
  

Note how time (fourth set of numbers in data) changed from 20 to 21 on the half hour as the ARGOS data is updated. Data for hour 21 is the average of data from 20:30 to 21:30 and is written to ARGOS and recorder on the half hour.

     Format:
  1. Day after system start
  2. GMT hour in day (time of data)
  Hourly Averages of:
  3.    Air Temperature
  4     PAR
  5.    Sea Surface Temperature
  6.    Temperature at 5 meters
  7.    Temperature at 15 meters
  8.    Temperature at 20 meters
  9.    Temperature at 25 meters
  10.   Temperature at 30 meters
  11.   Temperature at 35 meters
  12.   Temperature at 45 meters
  13.   Temperature at 50 meters
  14.   Battery One
  15.   Battery Two
  16.   System Status after last GOES Transmission
  

Bathymetric Surveys

In order to get a bottom profile for the Stratification Experiment, a combined PDR and CTD section was run along the proposed stratification mooring sites. This survey showed a smoothly decreasing depth from the 100-meter contour up to 50 meters. Near the Crest region a sudden transition from the smooth bottom to the ridge topography was seen (Figure 7) which shows the sudden onset of these features. Also, the asymetry (steeper offshore) and even spacing of these ridges is clearly evident.

CTD Surveys,/a>

Three CTD sections were made -- two along the main long-term moored line running through the Crest and South Flank mooring sites, and a third along the proposed Stratification line. The ENDEAVOR's CTD was a Sea Bird Model 911 with single pumped temperature and conductivity sensors, and a Sea Tech fluorometer and transmissometer. The data was recorded internally in the CTD and a subset sent to the surface for real-time display. The data was dumped from the CTD upon recovery, and run through the standard Sea Bird processing routines to get a normalized set of preliminary data. CTD Section Sheets I, II and III summarize the times, positions and depths for the 38 profiles recorded during the cruise. These profile data were then plotted for each station, and after each section, summary plots were made.

Figure 8 shows a summary of the first Long-Term Section of temperature (top) and salinity (bottom). The 12 CTD stations in the section are marked to aid interpretation. The salinity record is the simplest, showing lower Crest salinities (represented by profiles 1, 2, 3, 4 and possibly 5), and the higher North Atlantic salinities (represented by profiles 11 and 12). Between, there is a simple mixture of the two. This result is pretty much repeated in the second section 22 hours later (Figure 12), except that profile 5 and possibly 6 is now in the Crest water. The temperature profiles in Figure 8 and Figure12, show a similar picture, except that the coolest water is located in the stratified region of profiles 6 and 7. The Crest is a little warmer, and the North Atlantic is very much warmer due to a streamer from the Gulf Stream residing offshore (Figure 10). The region of the Southern Flank mooring is in the region of highest gradients, but possibly in the shelf slope front pushed up on the shelf further by the warm Gulf Stream water. The T-S plot (Figure 9) shows this same result, with profiles 1 through 5 at nearly the same salinity and cooling down as you go off the bank. Then there appears to be a linear mixture of water of this cool fresh type with the warmer saltier water seen in profiles 11 and 12.

The fluorometer and transmissometer records from the two long-term section (Figure 11 and Figure 13) are nearly the same. The fluorometer records give an indication of the primary productivity since they are tuned to the chlorophyll a emission frequency. Therefore, we expect to see a high correlation of primary productivity with high fluorometer readings. Since we are not calibrating the sensors with known biological signal, we will report the results in volts as a qualitative measure of relative chlorophyll signal. The transmissometer is calibrated in % transmission,with 100% being full transmission of light with no attenuation or absorption, and 0% being all light emitted from the sensor is scattered or absorbed before it hits the receiver 25 cm away.

The fluorometer and transmissometer readings at the Crest profiles 1 and 2 show uniform top to bottom signal with relatively high chlorophyll a and relatively low transmission. The offshore stations (11 and 12) have the lowest chlorophyll a readings and the highest transmission, with relatively little vertical structure -- slightly higher chlorophyll a and lower transmission above 40 meters depth. The highest chlorophyll a peak (and lowest transmissometer) is at station 7, with 8 and 9 both being high chlorophyll a stations (and lower transmission) in the upper 20 meters. The highest chlorophyll a peaks are seen at 10 meters, the depth of the moored bio-optical package at the Southern Flank site (CTD station 8). The second section (Figure 13) shows similar results.

The Stratification CTD section was made during a PDR survey up the line through the proposed Stratification mooring locations. Station 1 is offshore and station 9 onshore -- the opposite of the Long-Term moored section. Again the temperature and salinity (Figure 14) show the cooler fresher water on the bank, and the warmer saltier water offshore with strong vertical gradients and mixing between. The transmissometer and fluorometer profile summary are shown in Figure 15. Again the results are very similar to the Long-Term section profiles, with the high biological activity concentrated in the top 20 meters in the highly stratified region, and in the full water column in the Crest water, and lowest in the offshore water.

Cruise Personnel:

Scientific Personnel: Ship's Personnel:

Cruise Log

25 October 1994

1729 - Crest Buoy Data System Started
       "CREST.FIN" listing of sampling program
1731 - Triangle Data System Recorder
       Display has 115 records in it
       008 021 last record written
       "ZERO" works ok
       "WORK" is OK
       3 seconds between terminal skip observed

       Bottom Pressure/Temperature Recorder hooked up to Notebook
with log file
18:07:31 EDT Instrument wrote Sample # 100 (hex)
       Only End Cap Temperature data in this record
       Paroscientific Pressure Sensor Plugged in 
       System is working OK


26 October 1994

1130 - Crest Scientific Buoy "B"
     T & C plugged in 
     Load Cell plugged in 
     Solar Panel #1 - 19.57 v no load
     Solar Panel #2 - 20.4 v no load
     Solar Panel #3 - 16.9 v no load
     Solar Panel #4 - 17.6 v no load
1145 Guard Buoy "A" (Guard Buoy #1)
     Solar Panel #1 - 19.57 v no load
     Solar Panel #2 - 19.96 v no load
     Battery - no load, no solar panels - 12.57 v
             - no load, solar panels just plugged in - 12.71 v
1150 Guard Buoy "C" (Guard Buoy #2)
     Solar Panel #1 - 20.5 v no load
     Solar Panel #2 - 19.6 v no load 
     Battery - no load, no solar panels - 12.81 v
             - no load, solar panels just plugged in - 13.08 v

ADCP Instrument

Acoustic Release - BACS S/N 15050
     BB - ADCP S/N 1272
     Paroscientific Pressure Sensor S/N 53084 - 130 m range
1430 - ADCP Started
     Time set rel WWV for 
     No bottom track; BP set to 000
     300 pings @ 2s per 30 minute ensemble     
     Erase Recorder
     Save Parameters as defaults

    Check Crest transmitter after 1506 transmission - Crest buoy
not reaching GOES or ARGOS
         is it because antenna is on side and shielded by ship?
or other problem?

1545 - Underway to South Flank Site
     Use Rossby ADCP set up for shipboard unit as no GLOBEC setup
on ship
     
1608 - Talking with CREST data system
     A39 = Forward GOES power = 47.6 db
     A38 = Battery after GOES transmission = 12.00 v
     A37 = STATUS = 1260 = 010011101100 => F/R power error flag!
     Reattached Type N connector at antenna end
          shield had become frayed and looked like shorting to
center pin
     
1630 - new ARGOS data updated on half hour
     Status = 3*256+228 = 996 and shows no F/R power error!
     
     Attached third Bio-Optical Package to CTD for test in AM
     Seas 1-3', Wind 10 kts

2200 - ETA at site 0530 EDT
     Notes of things to check before launch:
     Poison tubes on all Conductivity sensors
     Check TDS recorders in buoys
     Check ARGOS telemetry on each buoy
     Start ADCP pinging

27 October 1994
0550 - On station - 40 57.93' N x 67 18.83' W
     Wind 12 kts, ADCP water velocity 25 cm/sec, Water Depth 75
m
     System Status - 12778 (South Flank) - 2*256+212 = 724 - OK
                     11709 (Crest) - 3*256+228 = 996 - OK
     Rigging for CTD/Bio-Optical test
0638 - CTD Package in Water
0638 - System at ~ 10 m
       P=11.0 dbars
       S=32.766 PSU
       T=12.75 C
0707 - wire angle about 30
       Pat & Kent rigging Guard Buoy #1
       SST 12.81 C, SSS 31.92 PSU, FL=0.7
       Wind 15 kts
0712 = CTD @ 10 m
       P=10.2, T=12.60, S=32.7, XM=78%
     
     Mooring Program:
       assume a 1.5 kt current
       Guard buoy - watch circle radius=37m at top, 15m at bottom
       Guards > 100 m apart
       Surlyn buoy - watch circle radius=19m at top
       6 bungie tethers gives 850 pounds tension
       4 bungie tethers gives 600 pounds tension
       Tethers something like 50% stretched

0813 Checking South Flank Buoy
     Reset clock @ 12:24:00
     Check at 12:34:30 - OK
     Recorder stepping - OK
1236 -GMT - A1 & Start system
0855 -Getting ready for Guard Buoy Launch
0908 - Picking up buoy
0909 - Buoy released and behind ship
0915 - Attaching anchor to chain
0933 - 1333GMT anchor away
     Bridge position - 40 58.124' N x 67 18.987' W - depth 76
m
     Lab position -  40 58.128' N x 67 18.985' W - depth 76 m
     moved science mooring position to 40 58.07 x 67 19.10
     STATUS 12778 (South Flank) - 3*256 + 212 = 980 - OK
            11709 (Crest) - 3*256 + 228 = 996 - OK
     South Flank Battery #2 = 12.687 v
0954 - 2nd anchor moved into launch position
     Moving scientific buoy into launch position
     Batteries 11709 (Crest) - at last half hour
                          B1=12.687
                          B2=12.714
               12778 (South Flank) - average over last hour
                          B1=12.630
                          B2=12.675
     Rigging buoy

1103 - Bio-Optical package #1 @ 10m
          Cond SN=041340
          Temp SN=031622
          Fluorometer=296
          Transmissometer=621
          PAR=1660
          Pump=40
     Array Sensors:
          T1=1630 - C1=1379
          T3=1628 - C3=1343
          T4=1629 - C4=1365
          T5=1615 - C5=1366
          T6=1632 - C6=1367
          T7=1631 - C7=1377
          T9=1624 - C9=1342
          T10=1613 - C10=1369
     Buoy Sensors
          PAR=4949
          Air Temp=??
     Acoustic Release 17307
          Ch A 11 kHz down, 12 kHz reply
          Ch B  9 kHz down, 11 kHz reply
          Enable A/B 56631
          Disable A 566377
          Disable B 566377
          Release 544214

1130 STATUS and Battery voltage reading
         12778 (South Flank) - B1=13.350
                 B2=13.221
                 STATUS=980 - OK
         11709 (Crest) - B1=13.077
                 B2-13.605
                 STATUS=996 - OK
     Wind 16 kts, seas 2-4'
     Bio-Optic Package #2 @ 40 m
          Cond=041333
          Temp=031623
          Par=1659
          Trans=620
12?? - start launch of South Flank Science buoy
1239 - all sensors in water
1244 - Acoustic release in water and chain tight to anchor
1306 - Anchor in water
1307 - Anchor released - GPS position:
         Wheel - 40 58.123 x 67 19.183
         Trimble - 40 58.096 x 67 19.173
1330 - Running by Science buoy to check fix               
         Wheel -  40 58.06 x 67 19.21        
         Trimble - 40 58.091 x 67 19.214
         Magellan - 40 58.093 x 67 19.213
       Visual bearing between two buoys shows 81 True, bathymetry
aligned 60 T
1400 - Rigging for Guard Buoy #2
       Changing position on deck
1438 - Start launch by picking up buoy
1442 - Buoy in water
1452 - Anchor released on Guard #2
         Wheel - 40 58.20 x 67 19.07
         Trimble - 40 58.186 x 67 19.086

15:00:05 - started ADCP system
        Log "STARTADCP.LOG"
        wrote record with time 19:00:07
19:40:07 UTC - Wrote record on time

1552 - ADCP deployed (allowed to free fall to bottom)
          Trimble Position- 40 58.118 x 67 19.129
  
1699 - Kent ranging on acoustic releases

1820 - starting CTD series at site
     Winch readout not functioning, holding up CTD series
1926 - CTD02 at South Flank Mooring
2030 - CTD03 at South Flank Mooring

2045 - End of operations at South Flank Mooring site - head for
Crest Site
     repairing winch readout

0630 - Wind 8 kts, Seas 2-3', nice sunrise
     setting up PDR for Crest final site survey
     run line @ 320T (deployment heading) through site 1.5 nm on each
side
     keep speed down to 5 kts
0715 - turning onto survey course
0752 - changing PDR paper
0945 - Crest survey done, site selected north of initial position,
good flat area 43 m deep
0946 - Setting up and preparing buoy for launch
     getting ship 1/2 nm below site
1026 - Pick up buoy
1028 - buoy on tether behind ship
1030 - streamed out and towing behind ship
1048 - anchor aweight
     Trimble position - 41 24.413' N x 67 32.485' W
1106 - SST=14.25C, SSS=31.77 PSU
     NOTE ARGOS uplink receiver time is off
          10/28/94 - 11:12:00 - reads 10/09/94 - 12:09:15
     Steaming to first station of Main Line Section CTD survey
1306 - Station 01 - CTD05 - well mixed top to bottom
1417 - Station 02 - CTD06 - Crest Mooring Site - well mixed top
to bottom
1527 - Station 03 - CTD07
1612 - Station 04 - CTD08
1659 - Station 05 - CTD09
1740 - Station 06 - CTD10
1818 - Station 07 - CTD11
1902 - Station 08 - CTD12 - Southern Flank Site - one hour yo-yo
at site
2038 - Station 09 - CTD13
2119 - Station 10 - CTD14
2204 - Station 11 - CTD15
2309 - Station 12 - CTD16

2330 -  Put bio-optical package on CTD for testing and end ops
for day

29 October 1994
0500 - Deploy bio-optical package on CTD at 10 meters depth
0900 - Winds 18 kts, seas 3-4' sunny
1000 - Bio-optical package out of water and end comparison test
     testing on deck, heading for main line CTD station 01

1114 - Station 01 - CTD18
1200 - at Crest buoy - wind 18 kts, seas 4' buoy leaning at slight
angle - took pictures

1213 - good ARGOS test of Crest buoy
     STATUS = 1508 - 10-22C, no F/R error, 48 db out, 13.0 v after
GOES
     Battery #1 - 13.599 v
     Battery #2 - 13.839 v
     Battery after last GOES transmission 12.12
     MCM temperature 12.12C
     MCM Bus voltage 13.56 v
1247 - Station 02 - CTD19 at Crest Buoy
1302 - reset ARGOS uplink receiver clock to 10/28/94 - 13:02:00
1350 - Station 03 - CTD20
1425 - Station 04 - CTD21
1500 - wind 15-16 kts
1505 - Station 05 - CTD22
1540 - Station 06 - CTD23
1620 - wind down to 10 kts
1623 - Station 07 - CTD24
1705 - Station 08 - CTD25 - yoyo at South Flank Buoy
1840 - Station 09 - CTD26
1918 - Station 10 - CTD27
1950 - Station 11 - CTD28
2000 - Wind and seas back up
2108 - Station 12 - CTD29

2120 - Done with CTD survey
     mounting bio-optical package on CTD
     new batteries in CTD for night operations
     ship to be at stratification section start at 0700 on Sun
     seas about 5', wind 20 kts. 

30 October 1994
0600 - pulling up bio-optical package on CTD
     break off CTD frame and move in lab
     Transit to start of PDR section
0656 - start of survey line
     putting new batteries in CTD
0730 - Steady on PDR line
     wind 20 kts, seas 4-5'
0934 - Station 01 - CTD31
     NOTE Sea Surface Temperature and Conductivity Clock off
     Reads 30 Oct 1994 - 01:07:00 PM instead of 13:40:47 UTC - not
reset
1035 - Station 02 - CTD32
1127 - Station 03 - CTD33
1213 - Station 04 - CTD34
1300 - Station 05 - CTD35
1344 - Station 06 - CTD36
1431 - Station 07 - CTD37
1510 - Station 08 - CTD38
1525 - End of CTD section through Stratification Moorings
1550 - End of PDR section through proposed Stratification Mooring
Sites
     End of operations, securing deck and heading for Woods Hole Dock

31 October 1994
0830 - arrive at WHOI dock in thick fog
0900 - unloading our equipment
     rigging shop taking off winches, deck boxes, etc.