Ann Bucklin, Chief Scientist
The scientific party acknowledges and commends the officers and crew of the R/V OCEANUS. Their professionalism and dedication made our work possible; their assistance and advice made the cruise successful.
This report was prepared by Ann Bucklin, John Sibunka, David Mountain, Peter Garrahan, Antonie Chute, Jennifer Crain, and David Townsend, with assistance from colleagues in the scientific party. This cruise was sponsored by the national Science Foundation and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Purpose of the Cruise 3
Cruise Narrative 7
Individual Reports 12
Zooplankton and Ichthyoplankton Studies 23
Preliminary Results of Zooplankton Findings 25
Preliminary Summary of Ichthyoplankton Findings 27
Phytoplankton Chlorophyll, Nutrients and Light Attenuation Studies 28
Copepod Life History Studies 35
Collections for Genetic Studies 37
Chief Scientist's Recommendations for Future Broadscale Cruises 40
Personnel List 41
Appendix I: Data Inventory 42
Appendix II: CTD Plots 55
Purpose of the Cruise
Six broadscale surveys are part of the 1997 U.S. GLOBEC Georges Bank Program. These six broadscale surveys are conducted monthly from January to June to monitor the changing biological and physical status in the Georges Bank ecosystem. The fourth cruise in this series was aboard R/V OCEANUS (OCE-302, 22 April - 2 May, 1997). The principle objectives of the cruise were to:
(1) determine the distribution and abundance of the ichthyoplankton and zooplankton community on the Bank and in adjacent Gulf of Maine and slope waters. Emphasis was on target fish (eggs, larval and juvenile cod and haddock) and copepod species (all stages of Calanus finmarchicus and Pseudocalanus sp.) and their predators and prey.
(2) provide systematic collections of larval and juvenile cod and haddock for age and growth estimates.
(3) collect individuals of Calanus and the euphausiid, Meganyctiphanes norvegica, for population genetics studies.
(4) conduct a hydrographic survey of the Bank.
(5) map the Bank wide velocity field using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP).
(6) deploy drifting buoys to make Lagrangian measurements of the currents.
In order to obtain uniform Bank-wide coverage, 40 predetermined "Standard stations" and 39 "Bongo stations" were scheduled for this survey. During this cruise 38 Standard stations were occupied. Nearly the entire Bank was surveyed, including the portion in Canadian waters (Figure 1).
The 40 Standard stations were assigned a priority code number (from 1-4) which reflected the equipment used on a given station. Priority stations assigned 1 or 2 were "full stations" with "high priority" , and stations assigned 3 or 4 were "partial stations" and designated "low priority". The intermediate Bongo stations were considered to have a lower priority (i.e. priority code number 5) than the 40 Standard stations.
At priority # 1 stations, an oblique plankton tow from surface to near bottom was made with a bongo sampler along with a Seabird real-time CTD attached to the towing wire. A large volume zooplankton pumping system was use to sample the water column. A Neil Brown Mark V CTD-fluorometer unit was used to characterize the water column. Niskin bottles attached to a rosette were used to collect water samples at selected depths for biological and chemical analysis. Water samples were collected on shipboard for chlorophyll-a and phaeopigment concentrations. Samples for phytoplankton species identification, cell count, and spatial distribution were taken for on shore analysis. Samples for microzooplankton were collected for both shipboard and post cruise processing. Water was also drawn for salinity determination and H218O/H216O isotope concentration analysis. A 1-m2 MOCNESS (Multiple Opening Closing Net Environmental Sampling System) was towed obliquely from surface to near bottom cycling twice to make vertically stratified collections of zooplankton with both 335µm mesh and 150µm mesh nets, and to make collections of fish larvae with 335 µm mesh nets. A 10-m2 MOCNESS fitted with 3.0-mm mesh nets was towed obliquely from surface to near bottom to make vertically stratified collections of larger predators on target species. At priority # 2 stations, a bongo tow, a large volume zooplankton pumping system, a Neil Brown Mark V CTD cast, and 1-m2 MOCNESS tow were made. At selected stations, the real-time CTD and a Niskin bottle cast were made for calibration purposes. A summary of sampling events that occurred during this cruise is in Appendix I.
The ship's ADCP unit was used to make continuous measurements of the water current profile under the ship, in order to construct the current field over the whole Bank. This data will be used to help in the interpretation of all the other observations made on the cruise.
During OCE-302, we completed the following:
- 67 bongo tows
- 34 MK5CTD casts
- 19 pump casts
- 35 MOC-1 tows
- 14 MOC-10 tows
- 4 drifter deployments
- 35 Kimmerer bottle water samples
- 6 vertical ring net tows
We completed all work at 30 stations, and all work except the MOC-10 deployment at another five stations. In addition, we completed bongo tows at 36 more stations. We did not occupy two stations: #31 and #32.
The cruise was originally scheduled for 20 May. However, the cruise was delayed one day in anticipation of adverse weather conditions. The cruise itself was characterized by periods of excellent weather (see Figure 2) and punctuated by periods of intense weather systems. In addition to the one day we lost by leaving on Monday, we were able to do no work during the following periods:
- 0540 hr (4/24) to 1355 hr (4/25) [32 hr];
- 0413 hr (4/29) to 1921 hr (4/29) [15 hr]; and
- 0030 hr to 1230 hr (5/2) [12 hr]
We were unable to complete planned operations (deploying only bongos) during the period 1819 hr (4/28) to 0413 hr (4/49) [10 hr]. Not counting the initial delay day, we lost approximately 3 days to weather.
The cruise was partially successful in terms of stations completed and coverage of the Broadscale Survey region. However, the cruise was fully successful in terms of teamwork between the science and ship crews, the hard and cheerful work of our volunteers, and our strategic planning to complete work and the highest priority stations and to accomplish the most important tasks.
Cruise Narrative - RV OCEANUS 302
Day 1: Monday, April 21
The RV Oceanus dropped lines at 1035 hr; clear skies, bright sun, and light breezes saw us on our way out of port. In preparation for a planned after-lunch dip-test for the MOC-01, we discovered that a pressure sensor calibration file for the MOC-01 was missing. After copying the file over from the back-up machine, we proceeded with our test - which included training sessions for the volunteers in MOCNESS deployment and recovery, and a training session in sample preservation. This exercise proved very useful in uncovering potential problems, getting the volunteers oriented, and providing a run-through for one of the new winch operators.
We arrived on station #1 at 2240 hr. Typical first-station-blues brought us to a halt when we could not communicate with the SeaBird CTD attached to the bongo wire. A system check indicated that both SeaBirds were operating, and a check of the MKVCTD showed the sea cable to be intact. The problem was solved by rebooting the acquisition computer. The bongo net was deployed at 0017 hr. Another hang-up occurred when the MOC-01 flow meter jammed. The MOC-01 was deployed several times, before switching the MOC-01 and and MOC-10 flow meters; the tow was completed at 0313 hr. The balance of the night watch - an intermediate bongo tow and a partial station - was completed without further gear problems in nearly flat calm under a setting 7/8ths moon.
Day 2: Tuesday, April 22
The first station occupied by the day watch was an intermediate bongo tow, which yielded small copepods. At the next station, #3, the CTD cast was done first to allow time for repairs to the pump hosing. The pump sample and MOC-01 deployment was completed before the watch change at noon. The MOC-10 deployment was attempted at 1330, but aborted when the acquisition program reported, "cannot query deck unit". A nearly-severed cable between the deck unit and the sea cable was found and repaired by Greg, the E.T. Subsequent deployment attempts revealed large tears along two faces of the zero net. At 1530 hr, the decision was made to abort the tow and move to the next station. The RV Cape Hatteras was sighted to starboard, with right whales "spy-hopping" between the two ships, during the steam toward station #4. Conditions were excellent, with sunny skies, light breezes, and a low chop.
We occupied station #4 at nearly 1800 hr and completed bongo tow, CTD cast, and MOC-1 deployment without difficulty. The first MOC-10 tow was done, with only a few hitches: the net response was found to be still not operational after failure on the previous cruise (during which it remained taped down), and grease values on the newly-installed MOC-10 rollers caught the zero net during deployment, which was consequently done to the disturbing sounds of tearing net. The Bosun removed the valves during the cast, to prevent further difficulty. The cast yielded euphausiids and other crustaceans and a 20 cm windowpane founder (identifed by Megan xxx). We steamed to the next station while securing the MOC-10 system. Station #5 was reached at 2245 hr, with the MOC-1 coming aboard just at the watch change at 0000 hr. Lovely full moon overhead.
Day 3: Wednesday, April 23
The night watch completed work at station #6 without incident, began work at station #7, and handed over to the day watch just after the MK5CTD cast at station #7. During the MOC-1 tow at station #7, the MOC-10 system was inspected: the zero net was found to have large holes and missing sections and was switched out for one of the two spares on board. The damaged net was stowed on the weather deck, for repair as time permits. The E.T. removed the net response for examination and possible repair.
We worked during the morning in lovely weather - light winds and sun - but anticipated deteriorating conditions late tonight, as the effects of a storm tracking between Cape Sable and Newfoundland was expected to reach us. We moved through station #8 and reached station #9 after dinner - an excellent Italian layout that topped the list of favorites chez Chris. Near station #9, we spent a few minutes looking for GLOBEC moorings, found two of three expected, and determined that one of Jim Irish's guard moorings was possibly missing. After reaching the station, the MOC-10 deployment was moved up to the first event, in case of weather problems. All went smoothly with the cast (the net response was tied down after determination that the problems were not solely mechanical and not fixable); the catch was light. The bongo and pump deployments were easily done, but the MK5CTD deck check indicated a poor connection. David and Greg worked for an hour to localize the problem (using a test cable to isolate the problem to the cable). We completed the MOC-1 deployment while the CTD trouble-shooting continued. The watch worked on deck to cock the MOC-10, tie the nets, and stow the pump for high seas. Following a reboot of the acquisition computer, the MK5CTD began working again as mysteriously as it had stopped, and the cast was completed just after the watch change. This recurrent problem with the CTD acquisition computer was explained as a freezing of the ports after a failure of any type. Rebooting consistently solved the problem.
Day 4: Thursday, April 24th
The night watch finished up at station #9 and completed all deployments at station station #10 at 0530 hr amid deteriorating conditions. The intermediate bongo between station #10 and station #11 had to be attempted twice, due to difficult ship and gear handling in the high winds. Work was stopped after the tow, and the ship headed south to wait out the storm in deep water.
Day 5: Friday, April 25th
The storm passed overnight, leaving high seas in its wake. By morning, winds were down to 10 - 15 kph, but the seas were still over 15 ft, making conditions unworkable. We began steaming north by 1000 hr, in anticipation of returning good conditions. We resumed work at 1335 hr with station station #11, which we completed as planned (including the MK5CTD and MOC-1). Emily reported strong currents at 90o to the northwesterly winds, resulting in a lot of roll for the ship during deployments. We reached the intermediate bongo station at 1630 hr.
Station station #12 was completed as darkness fell. All deployments were made without difficulty. The flow meter on the MOC-10 jammed a couple of times, and needs checking. A live tow at this station revealed the effects of the storm: lots of phytoplankton and hydroids, with few copepods. We reached station #13 just before the watch change.
Day 6: Saturday, April 26th
We continued working our way through the shallow stations on the crest of the Bank during the night. During the station #14 cast, the MOC-1 developed a quirk, with intermittent failures of contact with the deck unit, which was set at 300 baud. Cleaning the contacts with alcohol and re-gooping the leads eliminated the problem on station #15. The baud rate of communication with the MOC-1 deck unit has varied since the original problem with the MK5CTD on day 2. David is uncertain whether this variation is a consequence of the tinkering with the CTD, but it has not (until the cast at station #14) appeared to affect the performance of the MOC-1.
We occupied the deep Slope Water station, station #16, during the afternoon. The MOC-1 tow brought up many myctophids, which were removed from net #5 for further study by Karen Wilson. The length of the MOCNESS tows at these deep stations argues that the protocols be altered to pay-out at 20 m/min and haul-in at 15 m/min, except for the surface nets of the MOC-10 which should be slower to ensure sufficient volume filtered (see Recommendations, below). We were delayed at station #16 an additional hour, just before the MOC-10 deployment, by difficulty in switching the MOC-10 winch control to the main lab. Just after the watch change, we deployed the MOC-10 at the beginning of station #17. During this tow, erroneus readings of the MOC-10 temperature and salinity sensors were noticed. A check of the *.bmp files confirmed that the sensors had apparently malfunctioned since the beginning of the cruise. The night watch took over and deployed the MOC-1 at station #17.
Day 7: Sunday, April 27th
The night watch was delayed at station #18, due to difficulty starting the pump and difficulty communicating with the MOC-10 (which turned out to be a problem with the SALE system). They completed the station just before the day watch hit the deck. Greg and Peter returned to consideration of the erroneus readings of the MOC-10 sensors. The problem was eventually traced to a switching of the temperature and conductivity sensor wires on the MOC-10. Greg suggested that the data could be recovered by reprocessing the raw data with the temperature and conductivity fields switched for MOC-10 tows 1 - 7. MOC-10 tow 8 and later were correct.
The weather continued "delightful" (according to Captain Bearse), but with predictions of a gale with Southwest winds moving into the area tomorrow. At day's end, we had completed station station #22, giving us good progress for the day.
Day 8: Monday, April 28th
The night watch worked in quiet, foggy conditions and made rapid progress without incident. By morning conditions were still excellent, and the day watch took over at the intermediate bongo station on the way to station #25. The ship was redirected at this time to station #39 to optimize our time. The day watch worked at station #39 up to the MOC-1 deployment; the night watch recovered the MOC-1 and deployed the MOC-10. All but the MOC-10 was completed at station #25 before conditions became difficult. At 1845 hr, the deck was secured and the MOC-1 lashed to the deck. We headed for the next intermediate bongo station - the barometer falling, winds increasing, and seas rising - on a course with a distinctive roll.
Upon reaching the intermediate bongo station, #65, at 2130 hr, the Captain informed us that the interaction of winds, waves, and currents would prevent him from being able to keep the rail to leeward during the tow. We stopped work at 2145 hr.
Day 9: Tuesday, April 29th
The center of the storm passed over us at midnight, quieting the winds enough to allow us to deploy double bongos at station #26 and the subsequent intermediate bongo station. Westerly winds whipped up white caps and kept us rolling while we waited at station #27 through the day. Predictions of near-gale force winds for Thursday and Friday engendered discussions of how to prioritize the remaining activities. We devised several alternate scenarios, and began working on one that involved completing all station work at priority one and two stations. Estimated time required for completion was 50 hrs (including 16 hr of steaming time). This seemed about right, assuming resumption of work Tuesday evening and the arrival of the next gale on Thursday evening. The time will be reduced as necessary by dropping some MOC-10 tows.
Work resumed at 1915 hr, and we occupied station 27 in 3 to 5 ft seas and 15 knot winds. The gear was replaced into working position on deck. Despite a hang-up of the boom during MOC-1 recovery, the station work (sans MOC-10) went well. Wind and sea grew calmer during the station work. At station 28, we completed a bongo tow - as planned for most priority 3 and 4 stations - by the end of the day watch.
Day 10: Wednesday, April 30th
All work at station #29 was completed just before the end of the night watch, working in good conditions. At midpoint between stations, the ship slowed to 5 kts briefly for David Townsend's group to take a water sample (this activity continued throughout the rest of the cruise, although nearly all of the intermediate bongo tows were dropped). The day watch took over for station #30 with excellent working conditions - sunny, light breezes, and cool. The night watch nearly completed station #40 with an "interrupted" MOC-1 (bringing the net aboard after the first descent to remove the samples from nets 0 - 4 for Charlie Miller's copepods). Samples had lots of copepods, but also lots of diatoms - another station of green goop. Winds picked up as we steamed for station #34. The day watch completed work at station #34 before the end of the day.
Day 11: Thursday, May 1st
The night watch again worked for most of the watch, completing all work, including a MOC-10 deployment, at station #36. Conditions continued pleasant and workable, with 20 kt winds and sunshine, as the day watch worked at station #38. The night watch recovered the MOC-1 and deployed the MOC-10 at station #38, and then spent two extra hours fulfilling a request for live Calanus from Ted Durbin's lab. Two live tows were done: one was sieved for copepods for two garbage pails lashed on the weather deck (filled with the pump) and the other was picked and frozen for Ann Bucklin.
Winds continued at 25 to 30 kts, but the seas stayed workable as we steamed back east to pick up station #37. We then steamed back northeast, and the day watch completed station #35 just before midnight. As we were securing the deck for the return track, Emily warned us of an approaching squall line that she could see on radar. We completed the last work at the last station amid thunder, lightning, and pouring rain - a fitting Wagnerian finale to a rather dramatic meterological series.
Day 12: Friday, May 2nd
Both watches were waked at 0715 hr, to begin cleaning the lab and stowing personal gear. The steam home was more of the same rock-and-roll we have had during most of the past 12 days. The lines were cast at 1647 hr at the WHOI dock.
Both watches became hard-working and well-coordinated teams. With the able assistance of the bridge officers and deck crew, we worked very efficiently during our good weather windows during the cruise. When prediction of the third and fourth storm systems reached us as we approached station #39, we altered plans to fully occupy only the priority one and two stations after station #25, with bongo tows at the priority three and four stations close to our track, and dropping these stations if they were not. We completed this plan, adding full occupation of station #40 and full station work at stations #35 and #37, by 0030 hr on Thursday, when a final storm system shut down operations once again.
Hydrography (David Mountain and Cristina Bascunan)
The primary hydrographic data presented here were collected using a Neil Brown Mark V CTD instrument (MK5), which provides measurements of pressure, temperature, conductivity, fluorescence and light transmission. The MK5 records at a rate of 16 observations per second, and is equipped with a rosette for collecting water samples at selected depths.
Bongo hauls were made at most of the stations occupied. A Seabird Electronics Seacat model 19 profiling instrument (SBE19 Profiler) was used on each bongo tow to provide depth information during the tow. Pressure, temperature, and salinity (conductivity) observations are recorded twice per second by the Profiler.
The following is a list of the CTD data collected with each of the sampling systems used on the cruise:
Instrument # Casts
MK5 calibration 35
SBE19 calibration 6
The MK5 was deployed with 10 bottles on the rosette and samples were collected for various investigators. At primary #1 and #2 stations, 400 mls were immediately siphoned out of two niskins (bottom and mid-depth) for observations of micro-zooplankton swimming behaviour (S. Gallagher and L. Lougee, WHOI). Samples were collected for oxygen isotope analysis at selected depths for R. Houghton (LDGO) and a sample was taken at the bottom for calibrating the instrument's conductivity data. Chlorophyll and nutrient samples were collected at various depths by J. Xu and W. Arnold for D. Townsend (Umaine). Surface samples for phytoplankton species composition were collected and preserved for J. O'Reilly (NMFS) at full (priority 1 and 2) stations only.
Parameter # samples taken
Oxygen isotope 126
Micro-zooplankton 19 (+10 from surface bucket)
Species composition 20
The SBE19 Profiler and the MK5 data were post-processed at sea. The Profiler data were processed using the Seabird manufactured software: DATCNV, FILTER, ALIGNCTD, BINAVG, DERIVE, ASCIIOUT to produce 1 decibar averaged ascii files. The raw MK5 data files were processed using the manufacturer's software CTDPOST in order to identify bad data scans by "first differencing." The latter program flags any data where the difference between sequential scans of each variable exceed some preset limit. The "Smart Editor" within CTDPOST was then used to interpolate over the flagged values. The cleaned raw data were converted into pressure averaged, pressure centered 1 decibar files using algorithms provided by R. Millard of WHOI, which had been adapted for use with the MK5.
Both CTD systems worked well during the cruise. Due to weather the MK5 system was not deployed at standard station 26; and due to expected time constraints, it was not deployed at standard stations 28, 33 and the first occupation of standard station 35. When station 35 was reoccupied at the end of the cruise, the MK5 was deployed. At standard station 20, the MK5 conductivity data was obviously incorrect. Subsequent inspection found sand grains in the tubes of the conductivity sensor. These were washed out with a squeeze bottle, and the instrument again functioned normally. The SBE19 data from the bongo tow at stations 20, 26, 28 and 33 were substituted as the primary hydrographic data (shown as cast numbers 139, 151, 155 and 160, respectively, in Figure 3b).
Figure 3 shows standard station locations (a) and the corresponding CTD cast number (b) occupied during the bank-wide survey. The surface and bottom temperature and salinity distributions are shown in Figures 4 - 5. Surface and bottom anomalies of temperature and salinity as well as a stratification index (sigma-t difference from the surface to 30 meters) were calculated using the NMFS MARMAP hydrographic data set as a reference. The anomaly distributions are shown in figures 6-8. The distribution of fluorescence (expressed in volts) at the surface and bottom are shown in figure 9.
The volume average temperature and salinity of the upper 30 meters were calculated for the four sub-regions shown in Figure 10. These values are compared with characteristic values that have been calculated from the MARMAP data set for the same areas and calendar days. The volume of Georges Bank water (salinity < 34 psu) was also calculated and compared against the expected values. Profiles of each MK5 CTD cast with a compressed listing of the data are shown in appendix 1.
A major feature of the hydrography was an influx of water from the Scotian Shelf across Northeast Channel and along the southern flank of the Bank. The influence of the Scotian Shelf Water is evident in the surface temperature (figure 4a ) and salinity (figure 6a) distributions by a tongue of water <5 C and < 32.30 psu. This feature is also evident in larger negative anomalies in surface temperature (figure 5a) and salinity (figure 7a). No intrusion of Slope Water along the southern flank of the Bank was observed, as had been observed in some other surveys (e.g, May 1995).
The salinity over nearly the entire Bank was 0.5 - 0.6 psu fresher than the MARMAP reference. This is a smaller negative anomaly than observed in previous surveys in 1997. The salinity changes are believed associated with changes in the salinity of the entire Gulf of Maine/Georges Bank region. With the characteristic annual cycle in salinity removed, the long term salinity signal exhibited a marked decrease from 1995 to 1996 and appears on an increasing trend during 1997.
The water columns on the Bank (< 80 m water depth) exhibited only modest stratification (figure 8a). Much of the observed stratification was associated with low surface salinity and did not result from a significant warming of the surface layer.
The fluorscence values (volts) were generally low, compared to values observed during April in 1995 and 1996. This may indicate that the spring bloom is delayed in 1997 relative to its timing in the two earlier observation years.
Zooplankton and Ichthyoplankton Studies Based on Bongo and MOCNESS Tows.
(John Sibunka, Peter Garrahan, Pilar Heredia, Antonie Chute, and James Pierson)
(1) Principle objectives of the ichthyoplankton group in the broadscale part of the U.S. GLOBEC Georges Bank Program were to study the composition of the larval fish community on Georges Bank, to define larval fish distribution across the Bank and within the water column, to determine those factors which influence their vertical distribution, and to determine bank-wide versus "Patch-Study" mortality and growth rates. Emphasis in this study is on cod and haddock larvae along with their predators and prey. This study also includes larval distribution and abundance, and age and growth determination. These objectives were implemented through use of bongo net and MOCNESS to make the animal collections.
(2) The primary objective of the zooplankton group was to complete a bank-wide survey of Georges Bank to determine the distribution, abundance, and stage composition of the target species Calanus finmarchicus and Pseudocalanus spp. A second objective was to identify, quantify, and describe the occurrence of abundant non-target species in order to provide a description of the environment occupied by the target species. These objectives were implemented by using the 1-m2 MOCNESS, a vertically discrete, multiple opening and closing net system for sampling copepods and larger zooplankton, and a submersible pump for sampling the small, naupliar stages.
In addition to these objectives, the zooplankton group was responsible for the following:
(a) To collect fifth naupliar stage Calanus finmarchicus for RNA/DNA ratio analysis to be completed by Melissa Wagner at the University of Rhode Island.
(b) To take subsamples from the 1-m2 MOCNESS hauls for population genetic studies of Pseudocalanus spp. to be completed by Dr. A. Bucklin at the University of New Hampshire.
Bongo tows were made with a 0.61-m frame fitted with paired 335 µm mesh nets. A 45 kg ball was attached beneath the bongo frame to depress the sampler. Digital flow meters were suspended in the mouth of each net to determine the volume of water filtered. Tows were made according to standard MARMAP procedures, (i.e., oblique from surface to within five meters of bottom or to a maximum depth of 200 m while maintaining a constant wire angle throughout the tow). Wire payout and retrieval rates were ~35-40 m/min and 20 m/min respectively. These rates were reduced in shallow water (<60 m) to obtain a minimum of a five minute tow or reduced due to adverse weather and sea conditions. A Seabird CTD was attached to the towing wire above the frame to monitor sampling depth in real time mode and to measure and record temperature and salinity. Once back on board, the 335 µm mesh nets were rinsed with seawater into a 300 µm mesh sieve. The contents of one sieve were preserved in 4% formalin and kept for ichthyoplankton species composition, abundance and distribution. The other sample was preserved in 95% ethanol and kept for age and growth analysis of larval fish. The same preservation procedure was followed as for the 1-m2 MOCNESS.
At stations where the 1-m2 MOCNESS system either was not towed or could not be used due to adverse weather conditions, a second bongo tow was made. This frame was fitted with both 335 µm mesh and 200 µm mesh nets. Digital flow meters were suspended in the mouth of each net to determine the volume of water filtered. Tows were made according to standard MARMAP procedures except maximum tow depth was 500 m. Wire payout and retrieval rates were ~35-40 m/min and 20 m/min respectively. The nets were each rinsed with seawater into a corresponding mesh sieve. The 200 µm mesh sample was retained for zooplankton species composition, abundance and distribution, and preserved in 10% formalin. The other sample (335 µm mesh) was kept for molecular population genetic analysis of the copepod, Calanus finmarchicus, and preserved in 95% ethanol. After 24 h of initial preservation, the alcohol was changed.
The 1-m2 MOCNESS sampler was loaded with ten nets. Nets 1-4 were fitted with 150 µm mesh for the collection of older and larger copepodite and adult stages of the zooplankton. Nets 0, and 5-9 were fitted with 335 µm mesh for zooplankton (nets 0 and 5) and ichthyoplankton (nets 6-9) collection. Tows were double oblique from the surface to within 5 m from the bottom. The maximum tow depth for nets 0, 1 and 5 was 500 m, and for net 6 was 200 m( if net 5 was sampled deeper than 200 m, it was returned up to 200 m and closed). Winch rates for nets 0-5 were 15 m/min and for nets 6-9, 10 m/min. The depth strata sampled were 0-15 m, 15-40 m, 40-100 m, and >100 m. The first (#0) and sixth (#5) nets were integrated hauls. For shallow stations, with only 2 or 3 of the depth strata, not all nets were fished. The contents of nets 0-4 were sieved through 150 µm mesh sieve, subsampled using a 2-L plankton sample splitter if the final biomass volume was too large for one quart jar, and then preserved in 10% formalin. Samples from nets 5-9 were sieved through 330 µm mesh sieve and preserved in 95% ethanol. After 24 h of initial preservation, the alcohol was changed. The used ethanol was retained for disposal or recycling ashore. At higher priority stations, 90-ml subsamples from the bottom and surface 150 µm mesh nets were removed and preserved in 10% formalin for Dr. C. Miller. At priority 1 and 2 stations, 90-ml subsamples from nets 2, 3, and 4 were removed and preserved in 95% ethanol. These samples were collected for Dr. A. Bucklin for population genetic studies to distinguish the Pseudocalanus species found on Georges Bank.
The 10-m2 MOCNESS was loaded with five 3.0 mm mesh nets. Tows were oblique from surface to ~10 m from bottom or a maximum depth of 500 m. The same depth strata were sampled as with the 1-m2 MOCNESS. The winch rate for retrieval varied between 5 and 20 m/min depending on the depth stratum. The slow winch rates were used in order to filter at least 4,000-5,000 m3 of water per depth stratum sampled. A stepped oblique tow profile during retrieval was used to achieve this, if needed. Catches were sieved through a 335 µm mesh, and preserved in 10% formalin.
The Pacer high-volume pump was used to collect nauplii and younger, smaller copepodite stages of zooplankton. The intake hose was deployed off the starboard side hydro boom by connecting the suction end, fitted with a 1.7-L Niskin bottle cut in half lengthwise, to the winch wire. The boom winch meter block was zeroed at the surface and the wire out reading was used to determine the depth of the cast. A 70 kg weight was used to depress the array. Three 30-m sections of 7 cm diameter hose were connected to the pump, allowing the intake hose to attain a maximum depth of approximately 75 m. At shallow stations, the intake hose nozzle was lowered to 3-5 meters off the bottom. Three integrated depth samples were collected with 35 µm mesh nets, sieved through a 30 µm mesh sieve and preserved in 10% formalin. Sampling depths were from the maximum depth to 36 m, 36-11 m, and from 11 m to surface. Before samples were collected, water was diverted from the net and the hose was allowed to flush for 60 seconds. This assured that the zooplankton from the desired strata was obtained. Once at the surface, the intake section was held just below the surface for 60 s. This allowed the water to pass completely through the hose. Wire retrieval rate was approximately 4 m/min. This rate was used to obtain volumes of 500 L per 5 m depth interval sampled.
To collect Calanus finmarchicus nauplii for the RNA/DNA analysis, a 75-cm diameter ring net fitted with 100 µm mesh and a standard MOCNESS cod end was hauled vertically. These hauls were made at standard Stations # 12, 20, 29, and 38. The net was attached to the winch wire with a 70-kg weight. The array was lowered to a maximum depth of 75 meters and retrieved at approximately 5 m/min. The animals caught in the cod end were gently poured into a 5-gallon plastic bucket. A few liters from this bucket were placed in several beakers and kept on ice. The contents were then sieved through 100 µm mesh and rinsed into another beaker using MS-222 solution to anesthetize the animals. Twenty-five Calanus finmarchicus nauplii (stage 5) were sorted live, placed into cryotubes, and then frozen in liquid nitrogen. These samples will be analyzed for RNA/DNA content at the University of Rhode Island by Melissa Wagner.
Preliminary Results of Zooplankton Findings.
( Peter Garrahan, Pilar Heredia, and James Pierson)
Zooplankton from the 1-m2 MOCNESS samples from nets 0-4, and all pump samples will be identified, staged, and enumerated at the University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography, GLOBEC Counting Laboratory and Durbin Laboratory.
In general this cruise, there was the typical Bank mix of copepods with Calanus finmarchicus and Pseudocalanus spp. being the most abundant. Also present were Centropages typicus and C. hamatus, Metridia lucens, Oithona spp., Euchaeta spp., and Temora longicornis in lesser quantities. Calanus finmarchicus was present in large numbers at standard Stations # 3, 7, 29, 40 and 38.
The phytoplankton bloom present in earlier months on the Georges Bank is still evident. The most common species were the diatoms Coscinodiscus and Rhizosolenia, with Phaeocystis. These were mostly concentrated on the Bank crest. The hydroid, Clytia, was evident in large quantities at many of the shallower stations on the crest (Std. stn. # 12, 20 and 30). The dinoflagellate, Ceratium, was also present in the deeper stations off Bank, standard Stations #29 and 38.
Samples Collected by the Zooplankton and Ichthyoplankton Groups:
Gear Tows Number of Samples
1. Bongo nets, 0.61-m 67 tows
335 µm mesh 66 preserved, 5% formalin
335 µm mesh 67 preserved, EtOH
200 µm mesh 1preserved, 10% formalin
2. MOCNESS, 1-m2 35 tows
150 µm mesh 106 preserved, 10% formalin
335 µm mesh 35 preserved, 10% formalin
335 µm mesh 140 preserved, EtOH
3. MOCNESS, 10-m2 14 tows 56 preserved, 10% formalin
4. Pump 19 profiles 57 preserved, 10% formalin
30 µm mesh
Preliminary Summary of Ichthyoplankton Findings.
(John Sibunka and Antonie Chute)
All samples collected for ichthyoplankton analysis (bongo nets A and B, and 1-m2 MOCNESS nets 6-9) were subjected to preliminary observations of fish eggs and larvae on board ship. This was accomplished by examining the sample in the jar after preservation, a rudimentary but efficient way to obtain a gross estimate of the abundance, distribution and size range of fish eggs and larvae. The following is based on these observations.
Sand lance (Ammodytes spp.):
Sand lance dominated the larval fish catches both numerically and spatially. They were collected consistently all over the Bank, with larger catches seen at the stations inside the 60m isobath. they ranged from 15 to 40mm in size.
Cod-Pollock (Gadus morhua-Pollachius virens):
The larval cod/pollock collected on this April survey showed the same distribution and size range as the April 1996 survey (refer R/V ENDEAVOR No. 282 cruise report). The larvae were found only on the western portion of the Bank, with the greatest concentration (26 larvae observed) at standard Station 3. No more than 10 larvae were found at any other station. The smallest larvae were found along the southwest portion of the Bank, and the largest in the northwest portion. Since cod/pollock spawn on the Northeast peak, it is logical to observe an increase in the size of the larvae collected as they are carried away from the Northeast Peak with the clockwise gyre.
Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinnus):
Only one haddock larva was observed in the samples, at station 42 on the southwest portion of the Bank. It was 10mm TL .
Cod/ Pollock /Haddock eggs:
Again, distribution and abundance of these eggs was similar to April 1996 (refer R/V ENDEAVOR No. 282 cruise report). The largest catches were from the Northeast Peak, with smaller catches made on the southern flank of the Bank and onto the western edge of the Bank. The dense concentrations of eggs seen in the January, February, and March surveys (refer R/V ALBATROSS No. Al9701 and R/V OCEANUS Nos. 298 and 300 cruise reports) on the Northeast Peak are no longer apparent. These gadid eggs are more widely distributed and less numerous.
Miscellaneous Fish Larvae:
The following fish larvae were also identified in the ichthyoplankton samples collected during this broadscale survey.
1. Sculpin Myoxocephalus sp.
2. Redfish Sebastes sp.
3. Atlantic herring Clupea harengus
4. Sea snail Liparis sp.
5. Winter flounder Pseudopleuronectes americanus
6. Sea raven Hemilepidotus spinosus
Phytoplankton Chlorophyll, Nutrients and Light Attenuation Studies
David W. Townsend, Jiandong Xu and Wade Arnold; University of Maine
The purpose of this GLOBEC project is to investigate the idea that the growth and production of zooplankton and fish on Georges Bank are limited by the amount of nutrients (especially nitrogen) that is brought onto the Bank from the nutrient-rich, deeper waters around the Bank's edges (cf. Townsend and Pettigrew, 1997). Thus, we are collecting water samples on four of the six broadscale cruises (February to May) to analyze for a suite of nutrients and phytoplankton biomass. The sampling period is chosen to bracket the winter-to-early summer transition, during which time the winter nutrient levels become depleted over much of the Bank. During this cruise, water samples were collected for analyses of:
Water collections were made at various depths at all of the regular hydrographic stations (Stations 1 - 40) sampled during the April 1997 broad scale survey cruise aboard R/V Oceanus, using the 1.7 liter Niskin bottles mounted on the rosette sampler. Additional near-surface water samples were collected at positions between the regular stations (Stations numbered >40) using a Kimmerer Bottle to sample a depth of approximately 2m. In order to place the spring phytoplankton bloom into proper context, we also made measurements of the vertical attenuation of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR).
Light casts were made at CTD stations 7 and20. A LiCor underwater spherical quantum sensor and deck-mounted cosine quantum sensor were used to compare the underwater light field as a function of depth corrected to coincident surface irradiance. Data will be presented at a later date.
Samples for dissolved inorganic nutrients and chlorophyll were collected at all regular stations and at in-between stations (at 2 m). Water samples for DIN were filtered through 0.45 µm Millipore cellulose acetate membrane filters, and the samples were frozen in 20ml polyethylene scintillation vials by first placing the vials in a seawater-ice bath for about 10 minutes. Samples will be analyzed on shore following the cruise using a Technicon II AutoAnalyzer, and reported later, as will all the various nutrient measurements. Water samples (50 mls) for dissolved organic nitrogen, and total dissolved phosphorus were collected at 2 depths (2 and 20m) at each of the main stations and frozen as described above. These samples will be analyzed ashore using a modification of the method of Valderrama (1981). Samples for particulate organic carbon and nitrogen were collected by filtering 500 mls from 2 depths (2 and 20m) at each of the main stations onto pre-combusted, pre-ashed GF/F glass fiber filters, which were frozen for analysis ashore. The filters will be fumed with HCl to remove inorganic carbon, and analyzed using a Control Equipment Model 240-XA CHN analyzer (Parsons et al., 1984). Samples for particulate phosphorus were collected as for PON (but 200 mls were filtered) and frozen at sea. Laboratory analyses will involve digesting the sample in acidic persulfate and then analyzing for dissolved orthophosphate.
Phytoplankton chlorophyll a and phaeopigments were measured on discrete water samples collected at all stations and determined fluorometrically (Parsons et al., 1984). The extracted chlorophyll measurements involved collecting 100ml from bottle samples taken at depths selected to correspond to "interesting" features revealed in the in situ fluorometer CTD cast. Samples were filtered onto GF/F filters, extracted in 90% acetone in a freezer for at least 6 hours, and analyzed at sea using a Turner Model 10 fluorometer. The results are presented in Table 1.
Parsons, T.R., Y. Maita and C.M. Lalli. 1984. A Manual of Chemical and Biological Methods for Seawater Analysis. Pergamon, Oxford. 173 pp.
Townsend, D.W. and N.R. Pettigrew. 1997. Nutrient limitation of secondary production on Georges Bank. J. Plankton Res. 19(2): 221-235.
Valderrama, J.C. 1981. The simultaneous analysis of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in natural waters. Marine Chemistry 10: 109-122.
|Table 1.||Concentrations of phytoplankton chlorophyll a and phaeopigments.|
Copepod Life History Studies
Jennifer Crain/Charles B. Miller, Oregon State University
Calanus sex reversal? : the quadrithek story continues
There is a large body of evidence supporting the hypothesis that genetic male copepods of the family Calanidae have a point in their development at which they can "choose" to develop as functional females, and that this "choice" is triggered by some unknown environmental signal. Laboratory rearing studies and field-generated sex ratios support this. The signature of females resulting from this change is a male setal pattern on the first antenna. Fleminger (1985) saw this pattern in females of a number of calanid species, and called them "quadritheks" because they (like males) have four setae on some of the segments in contrast to normal, or "trithek", females, which have only three. We have found definite seasonal trends in the proportions of quadritheks in our Georges Bank samples from 1994, 1995 and 1996. The same trend has been seen by colleagues (Svensen and Tande) in Norway. We will continue to monitor this trend using formalin-preserved subsamples from the 150 micron MOC-1 nets on this and subsequent BroadScale cruises. On OC302, we collected subsamples (90/600ml) at standard stations 3, 4, 7, 9, 12, 13, 16, 17, 18, 20, 23, 24, 25, 39, 27, 29, 30, 40, 34, 36 and 38 for analysis of first antennal setation patterns.
Many adult male Calanus were found this month. This is seemingly in contrast to the normal April/May samples from previous years, in which males were relatively scarce. The abundance of adult females was lower this month than in March, which corresponds to a gap between the generation starting from 1996 C5 resting stock and the subsequent first generation of 1997. Comparisons of field-generated sex ratios and proportion of quadrithek females between years may yield some interesting results.
We hope that we will be able to determine the underlying genetic sex of individual Calanus and correlate the quadrithek antennal morphology with genetic maleness. We will try to tackle this problem by analysis of DNA fragment lengths, which are expected to be different in X and Y chromosomes, and searching for highly multiple repeat sequences characteristic of sex chromosomes. For these analyses, we are cryopreserving adult male and female Calanus. On this cruise,several hundred adults were sorted from our subsamples and frozen live in liquid nitrogen from stations 10, 24, and 29. Ethanol-preserved subsamples from MOC-1 net 5 (90/400ml) taken at standard stations 3, 4, 7, 9, 12, 13, 17, 18, 20, 23, 24, 25, 39, 27, 29, 30, 40, 34, and 36 will also be used.
The question of relative egg outputs of normal (trithek) females versus sex -changed genetic males (quadritheks) and implications for individual reproductive success will be addressed by correlations between fecundity data gathered by Jeff Runge and analysis of antennal morphology for each specimen. There are some intriguing questions left to be answered regarding the impact of sex reversal on Calanus population dynamics. We are trying, by examination of BroadScale subsamples and cooperative efforts with other PI's, to piece the whole story together.
Copepodite jaw morphology: an indicator of diapause and age-within-stage
We have been analyzing jaw facies of fifth copepodites to determine the fractions of their stocks that are A) entering the copepodite resting stage typical of this species, and B) preparing for immediate maturation. Copepodites of the A group retain the postmolt facies, a large hemocoele extension which looks like a transparent bubble reaching up toward the teeth of the mandibular gnathobase. Copepodites of the B group also have this 'bubble' for a short period following molting, but it begins retracting toward the base very quickly as the animal fills its new exoskeleton. We are dissecting and examining the jaws of individuals from the formalin-preserved subsamples listed above to determine the proportions of animals in this jaw phase. Additional correlations of jaw stage data with gonad development and oil sac volume, both indicators of whether a copepodite is halting or proceeding with development to maturity are being made to differentiate between the groups.
Observations of lipid volumes as seen on images captured (see below) showed that there were many fifth copepodites with large volumes of stored oil, especially at the deeper stations. These animals were still active, if a bit sluggish, but quite possibly were preparing for diapause. Developing gonads were seen only in animals with smaller oil sacs.
Jaw staging is also an indicator of an individual's age-within-stage. As the animal progresses through each stage, the jaw facies pass through recognizable postmolt, late postmolt, intermolt and tooth formation phases. Rate of progression through this series of jaw phases may be variable, possibly related to feeding or starvation history. Preliminary analyses of jaw phases of individual second through fifth copepodites from 1995 and 1996 BroadScale subsamples have yielded some interesting results with respect to the population dynamics of Calanus on Georges Bank. The formalin-preserved subsamples listed above will be used for continuation of this effort.
Lipid analyses : total storage volume and composition
We are studying the large store of oily wax which C. finmarchicus secretes into a tubular sac in the prosome of the fifth copepodite stage, prior to either maturation or rest. Actually, all copepodite stages have such sacs and accumulate some oil. The main question under study in 1997 is the areal and seasonal variation in quantities of oil in C5. Oil is quantified by an integration of the projected area of the oil sac in video pictures and approximate conversion to oil volume, using image analysis and an algorithm recently worked out by Charlie for calculating an accurate volume estimate from the area.
On OC302, sets of video recordings were taken at standard stations 3, 7, 13, 20, 24, 29, 40, and 38. It is necessary to have undamaged, healthy individuals for these images. The animals caught in the deeper (longer) MOC-1 hauls at stations 16, 39 and 25 were dead or dying by the time they were sorted from the nets, and could not be used. To circumvent this problem, interrupted MOC hauls were made at the remaining deep stations (29, 40 and 38), rinsing the first five nets (0-4) before redeploying for the rest of the tow. These hauls yielded strong, healthy fifth copepodites for images. Each image recorded was of a group of five fifth copepodites. Each group was then cryopreserved for gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acid and fatty alcohol components.
Collections for Genetic Studies.
Ann Bucklin, University of New Hampshire
It is essential for understanding variations in the winter production of zooplankton on the Bank as well a knowledge of the origin or sources of the target species Calanus finmarchicus, and Pseudocalanus sp. as well as the Spring zooplankton bloom. Individuals are believed to come onto the Bank from the Gulf of Maine, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Scotian Shelf, and possibility the Slope Water. However, it is impossible to define through the morphology of the individuals where zooplankton currently found on the Bank originated. Consequently, population genetics studies of Calanus, Pseudocalanus, and several other species (e.g. the euphausiid, Meganyctiphanes norvegica) are being conducted at the University of New Hampshire by A. Bucklin. This in an effort to identify viable genes to characterize dispersal patterns and to provide a genetic basis upon which to gauge Bank production as a function of recruitment source populations. An attempt to distinguish between the morphologically similar Pseudocalanus species found year round on the Bank (e.g. molutoni and newmani) is also being developed, as well as genetic based analysis of their Bank circulation patterns and dispersal pathways. The work mentioned above is tied directly to other efforts to identify water sources and losses for the Bank, as well as circulation and exchange processes across the Bank boundaries. On this cruise, samples were collected at every station for genetic studies with net #5 on the 1-m2 MOCNESS. At selected stations, 90 ml subsamples from the bottom and surface 1-m2 MOCNESS with 150-µm mesh nets were taken. All samples were preserved in 95% ethyl alcohol which was changed during the first 24 hr period after collection. In addition, 4 samples from vertical ring net tows and 6 subsamples from MOCNESS Net #5 were frozen in liquid nitrogen for molecular analysis.
R.C. Beardsley and R. Limeburner, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
As part of the physical oceanographic studies of the current structure and circulation on Georges Bank being conducted by R. Beardsley and R. Limeburner, GLOBEC Drifter Buoys are deployed at strategic locations periodically throughout the year to track the Lagrangian flow from the point of deployment. This drifter is constructed with a holey sock drogue (a Dacron cylinder 90 cm diameter by 3 m tall with 5 circular hoop stays) at the bottom connected by either a 10 m or a 40 m cable to a small float (18 cm diameter) which in turn is connected by about 2.6 m of cable to a larger spherical surface float (about 32 cm diameter). The surface float contains a sea surface temperature sensor, a GPS receiver, and an ARGOS satellite transmitter. Temperature, time, and position data are transmitted periodically to shore through the ARGOS telemetry system. On this cruise, six drifters were deployed.
Shipboard ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) Measurements.
C. Flagg (Brookhaven National Lab) and J. Candela (WHOI)
The flow field over Georges Bank is driven by a complex set of forces. A primary factor is the strong semidiurnal tides which dominate the high frequency variability (<1cpd) of the currents. Tidal rectification gives rise to a persistent subinertial clockwise circulation over the Bank. This circulation process can be substantially modified by the frequent storms common to the area, changes in the stratification of the Bank. and interactions with currents generated by offshore circulation features (i.e. Warm-Core Rings).
The Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler is one of the instruments being used to study the circulation process on the Bank by J. Candela and C. Flagg. Water current measurements were obtained using a 150 kHz RDI ADCP continuously during the entire cruise. The transducers were mounted on the hull of the ship (5 m below the surface with a heading offset (OH) of -1.5). The instrument was programmed to measure the current profile under the ship with a vertical resolution of 2 m, from 10 m depth to about 10 m from the bottom or up to a depth of about 120 m, which ever was shallower at a given location. The current profiles were generated by 60 s data averages. Transformation to geographical North and East current components was preformed using real time gyro information fed into the ADCP from the ship's navigation instrumentation. Also fed to the instrument was real time GPS positioning which was stored directly in the minute average profile data files. The ADCP measures currents with respect to the ship. To obtain the water current with respect to the ocean bottom, the ship's motion needs to be removed from the current observations. The ship's motion will be removed using the bottom track (BT) velocity measured by the ADCP. Depending upon sea conditions, the ADCP can preform this operation in water depths shallower than 200 to 230 m. When the BT is lost, accurate navigation will be used to remove the ship's velocity from the current. The ADCP data collected on this cruise will be post-processed at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution by Candela and Flagg.
Chief Scientist's Recommendations for Future Broadscale Cruises
1. Test station: Completion of a test station during the afternoon of the first day has the advantages of testing gear (with time to trouble-shoot problems with both watches awake and well before the first station) and providing a demonstration for any volunteers on board.
Tasks to be completed at the test station would include: MOC-01 deployment, completion of a bongo tow with the SeaBird CTD, and preservation of bongo tow samples (which is a frequent volunteer task). We might also consider doing a CTD tow.
2. MOCNESS Electronics Troubleshooting: Additional training for electronics troubleshooting could be offered to the URI Technical Group. Many of the problems are within their capabilities, but additional training might make it possible to address gear hang-ups more efficiently and confidently
3. Technical support for MOC-10: It has become typical that nets are lashed to the MOC-10 frame, and sit untended between cruises. This leads to rapid deterioration and lost tows. The net response has not worked for two cruises; apparently no one was alerted to this problem and it was not repaired between OCE-300 and OCE-302. The MOC-10 temperature and conductivity sensor wires were switched at some point before or early into the cruise. This problem could probably have been avoided if the wires were color-coded on both ends; the current labeling is misleading.
4. Official change of MOCNESS protocols for deep stations: The GLOBEC handbook should be changed for MOCNESS deployments at deep stations (S#7, 16, etc) to save time and effort. The payout for both MOC-1 and MOC-10 should be at 20 m/min, and haul in at 15 m/min, except for the surface nets of the MOC-10, which should be slower to allow sufficient volume filtered.
Name Title Organization
1. Ann Bucklin Chief Scientist University of New Hampshire
2. John Sibunka Scientist NMFS/NEFSC, Sandy Hook, NJ
3. David Mountain Scientist NMFS/NEFSC, Woods Hole, MA
4. Antonie Chute Biol. Sci. Technician NMFS/NEFSC, Narragansett, RI
5. Christina Bascunan Phys. Oc. Technician NMFS/NEFSC, Woods Hole, MA
6. Jennifer Crain Biol. Sci. Technician OSU, Corvallis, OR
7. Maria Pilar Heredia Biol. Sci. Technician URI/GSO, Narragansett, RI
8. James Pierson Biol. Sci. Technician URI/GSO, Narragansett, RI
9. Peter Garrahan Biol. Sci. Technician URI/GSO, Narragansett, RI
10. Megan O'Connor Graduate Student URI/GSO, Narragansett, RI
11. Jiandong Xu Graduate Student University of Maine
12. Wade Arnold Graduate Student University of Maine
13. Karen Wilson Graduate Student University of Wisconsin
14. Mark Chandler Volunteer
15. Jennifer Janis Volunteer
OCEANUS Officers and Crew
1. Lawrence Bearse Master
2. Courtenay Barber III Chief Mate
3. Emily McClure Second Mate
4. Jeffrey Stolp Boatswain
5. Sean Burke A.B.
6. Patrick Pike A.B.
7. Michael Butler O.S.
8. Richard Morris Chief Engineer
9. Alberto Collasius Jr. Engineer
10. Andrew Dunlop Jr. Engineer
11. George Nunes M.A.
12. Christopher Jewett Steward
Appendix I: Data Inventory
Appendix II: CTD Plots
|L||O||C A L||Water||Cast|
|EVENT #||INSTR||Cast #||Sta #||Sta_std||Mth||Day||hhmm||s/e||Lat||Lon||Depth||Depth||PI||Region||Comments|
|OC11297.05||MOC-1||1||1||1||4||22||238||S||4059.8||6859.6||79||70||DURBIN||FLOW METER PROBLEM - USE ONE FROM 10M|
|OC11297.06||MOC-1||1||1||1||4||22||313||E||4057.7||6900.1||82||70||DURBIN||ADJUSTED FLOW METER - SEEMS OK|
|OC11497.19||SECURED||20||50||4||24||540||S||4108.3||6746.5||46||BUCKLIN||JOGGING||SECURED FOR WX|
|OC11797.31||BONGOSB||38||38||59||4||27||1157||S||4140.3||6645.7||74||65||SIBUNKA||re-do, hit bottom|
|OC11797.41||MK5CTD||20||39||20||4||27||1434||S||4145.7||6632.7||73||65||MOUNTAIN||SALINITY DATA NOT GOOD|
|OC11797.42||MK5CTD||20||39||20||4||27||1449||E||4146.0||6632.3||73||65||MOUNTAIN||SAND GRAINS IN CELL|
|OC11997.05||BONGOSB||52||51||26||4||29||135||S||4204.2||6625.5||86||79||DURBIN||SUB MOC-1||150 mesh - in place of MOC-1|
|OC11997.15||MK5CTD||28||53||27||4||29||1951||S||4155.6||6642.0||64||59||MOUNTAIN||NO MK5 #27 - RENUMBERED AS #28|