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REPORT ON C.S.S. Parizeau CRUISE 97-025

 27 June-4 July, 1997

by

Peter C. Smith and Gary L. Bugden

Ocean Sciences Division

Bedford Institute of Oceanography Dartmouth, Nova Scotia

CANADA

July, 1997


 

BEDFORD INSTITUTE OF OCEANOGRAPHY CRUISE REPORT Parizeau 97-025

 

Local Cruise Designation:                                  97-025

 

Vessel:                                                             C.S.S. Parizeau

 

Dates:                                                               27 June-4 July, 1997

 

Area:                                                                Southwest Nova Scotia/Georges Bank

 

Responsible Agency:                                         Ocean Sciences Division

                                                                        Scotia-Fundy Region, DFO

 

Ship's Master:                                                   Capt. G. O’Donnell

 

Scientific Personnel:

 

P.C.Smith                                                         Ocean Sciences

M. Scotney                                                      Ocean Sciences

G. Bugden                                                        Ocean Sciences

L. Bellefontaine                                                 Ocean Sciences

B. Nickerson                                                    Ocean Sciences

M. Coombs                                                      Harding Scientific

M. Buehner                                                      Dalhousie U.

 


1. PURPOSE

 

The scientific objectives of this cruise were:

 

1)                long term monitoring of the major inflows to the Gulf of Maine, namely the surface inflow from the Scotian Shelf off Cape Sable and the deep inflow of slope water through Northeast Channel,

2)                determining the seasonal hydrographic properties along the eastern boundary of the Gulf of Maine, and

3)                measuring the hydrographic structure over Truxton Swell and in Jordan Basin (if possible) in order to determine the extent of slope water penetration into Jordan Basin.

 

The activities planned for the cruise period include:

 

1)                recovery of moorings in Northeast Channel (NECE,NECW), on southeastern Georges Bank (SEF), and on northeast peak (WHOI mooring plus guard buoy),

2)                CTD survey along the eastern boundary of the Gulf of Maine,

                    including Browns Bank, Northeast Channel, Georges Basin and Truxton Swell and along the Halifax Section, and

3)                repeated ADCP transects across Northeast Channel over at least one tidal cycle.

 

2. NATURE OF DATA GATHERED

During this cruise, a total of four complete BIO current meter moorings and two guard buoys were recovered at three sites in the Gulf of Maine (NECE, NECW, SEF; see Figure 1a and Table 1).  The bottom portion of one mooring (#1242) at NECE and the top portion of another (#1241) at NECW were also recovered; the floats on #1242 had been recovered earlier in Portsmouth, NH, and the bottom instrument, release and tide gauge on #1241 were lost.  Only one guard buoy was found at both NECE and NECW; and all three were missing from SEF.  In addition to the BIO moorings, a WHOI instrument mooring (“B”) and guard buoy (“A”) were successfully recovered from the northeast peak site (NEP, see Figure 1a).  An engineering mooring was also recovered from Emerald Basin (43o 53.17’N, 62o 51.89’W) on the way into BIO.

 

In addition, a total of 51 CTD stations (Fig.1b, Table 2) were occupied along:

                   1)                a section from the 50 m isobath off Cape Sable to the outer edge of Browns Bank (Fig.3),

                   2)                a section across Northeast Channel from Browns to Georges Bank (Fig.4),

                   3)                a section across the western flank of Browns Bank (Fig.5),

                   4)                a section along Truxton Swell (Fig.6)

                   5)                a section following the 200 m isobath on the eastern side of the Channel, from Truxton Swell to the mouth (Fig.7),

                   7)                a section across the outer Scotian Shelf off Shelburne (Fig.8),

                   8)                the Halifax Section (Fig.9), and

                   9)                at each mooring site.

 

The quality of the CTD temperature and salinity measurements is quite acceptable (Table 2a), especially considering the relatively high variability of the standards used. The YSI dissolved oxygen sensor showed a large offset with respect to the titrated values from near-bottom samples (Table 2a; Fig.2a), but stable calibrations were obtained by linear regression of sensor vs. titrated values (Table 2b).  The YSI sensor exhibited occasional noise, spikes, and hysteresis between the up- and downtraces.  In addition, roughly 200 oxygen isotope samples were collected throughout the water column at even numbered stations (Fig.1b) for Dr. Robert Houghton of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.  Nutrient samples were collected throughout the water column as well at the even-numbered stations.

 

Ten repeated ADCP transects (6 full, 4 partial; Table 3) were run over the duration of the cruise along the mooring/CTD line in Northeast Channel (Fig.1b) in order to monitor the inflow/outflow over an M2 tidal cycle.  A total of ~16 hrs was devoted to straight-run transects, with an additional 20 hrs spent on the CTD and mooring lines.  Only processed (averaged) data were collected over the entire cruise  and stored as 5-min averaged data files.  At the start of the cruise, a test of the ADCP transducer alignment error and amplification factor showed that these values were acceptable (Table 3a.) .

 

 

3. PROGRAM SUMMARY

 

Date               From(UTC)      To(UTC)                       Operation

 

27 June               1300             2100                Windlass breakdown delays departure

                           2100             1500(28)          Depart BIO enroute to NECE mooring site

28 June               1500             0100(29)          Mooring recovery operations at NECE, NECW;

                                                                        CTD1,2

29 June               0153             0513                CTD3-6 on Section Ib

                           0900             1430                Mooring recovery operations at NEP,SEF;

                                                                        CTD7-8

                           1700             1850(1)            CTD9-37 on Sections Ia,Ib,II,III and V

1 July                  1850             1020(2)            Repeated ADCP transects across NEC

2 July                  0900             0100(3)            CTD38-44 on Sects.V, VI

3 July                  1230             0300(4)            CTD45-51 on Halifax Sect.; recover test mooring

4 July                                       1000                Arrive BIO

 


4. MOORING OPERATIONS

 

The recovery of four of the six BIO instrument moorings at three sites (SEF, NECW and NECE; Table 1, Appendix) was completed without incident.  Using differential GPS positioning with AGCNAV and transponding with the release, it was possible to locate and retrieve all of the moorings quickly.  One partial mooring (#1242 at NECEA), consisting of the two instruments backup buoyancy (BUB) and the release, was also recovered routinely.  The Fairey floats had been reported found in Portsmouth, NH on June 11. The termination of the upper segment of wire rope had parted and the wire ends appeared to be corroded badly.  In addition, some fishing line was hooked into the release, suggesting some further stress on the components.  The deep mooring at site NECW (#1241) was contacted and released, but did not come to the surface.  A subsequent survey revealed that the release was upright and NW of its original position by 0.1nm. A subsequent dragging operation (~1200m drag wire encircling the mooring twice at radii of 0.2 and 0.1 nm) was partially successful.  As the drag was hauled in, it encountered a large strain, then released.  The Fairey float and two streamline packages then came to the surface, along with a single glass ball indicating the BUB had been damaged.  On recovery, it was discovered that the mooring had parted just below the deeper streamline package, leaving the deep instrument, BUB, release and tide gauge behind.  Interrogation of the release indicated that it was no longer upright, suggesting it had parted from the BUB as well.  Record dumps of the instruments indicate that the mooring had been hit only recently (mid-Sept.).  Otherwise, all the returning moorings were in relatively good shape.  There were major(minor) amounts of hairy growth on the instruments at the 20m(50m) levels, but the conductivity cells and rotors were clean.  The “killing tubes” on the SEACATs seemed to work well, and painting the entire RCM case with antifoulant kept the growth away from the rotor and conductivity cell, except in the case of instrument RCM2664 on the SEF mooring.  Here the hairy growth on the handle of the instrument was sufficient to impede the rotor when the instrument came aboard. Each had the expected number of words in memory.

 

Of the original eleven guard buoys, one was found at each of the NECW and NECE sites, and none of the three at SEF or two at NEP was found.  One possible explanation for this is the quality of the splices in the nylon braid rope components of the mooring lines.  The line on the NECE guard buoy parted at the upper splice as it was being hauled in (leaving the thimble behind) and the upper splice on the NECW guard buoy looked very frayed and weakened.  This would be consistent with the complete loss of the shallower guards, since the stronger tidal currents on the bank would work the splice harder.

 

 

Problems/Recommendations:

(1)               Investigate means to improve the splicing of the nylon braid in the guard buoy mooring lines in future.


5. HYDROGRAPHIC MEASUREMENTS

Hydrographic and chemical measurements were made at a total of 51 stations (Table 2) using a Seabird 9/11 Plus system, equipped with a SBE 23Y Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) dissolved oxygen sensor.  The data were logged on a 33 Mhz 486 PC and post-processed between stations using SEABIRD's software.  Once processed, the data were transferred to the VAX over the network for final tape backup to EXABYTE. 

 

Water column sampling was accomplished with a General Oceanics 12-bottle rosette (only 9 slots were available because of instrument). Duplicate nutrient and oxygen isotope samples were drawn at roughly standard depths on the even numbered stations only.  In addition, two calibration bottles were tripped at the bottom of each cast for temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen (see below).

 

Several electrical problems were encountered with the CTD system during the course of the cruise.  Early in the cruise, the error lights shone frequently during the stations, although the data appeared to be good.  Various fixes included a new deck unit, new splice, and a new probe.  Later, the bottle trip indicators failed, although the bottles did fire on command, but no calibration information was captured by the system.  To get around this problem, a manual procedure involving SEABIRD’s MARKSCAN routine was instituted with appropriate modifications to the process deck.  The main problem appears to be the aging GO rosettes, which are failing both electronically and mechanically.

 

5a. Processing

 

The processing and data transfer to the VAX was initiated by a single command at the end of the station.  This command, called PROCESS, starts a batch job that sequentially passes the data through a number of programs. Most were from SEABIRD's SEASOFT package.  A few were custom written at BIO.  The following is a summary of the processing procedure [modifications required for the manual bottle trip procedure are indicated in square brackets]:

 

(0)               [Run MARKSCAN to create .BSR (bottle scan records) file from .MRK file, created by hitting (cntrl-f5) after a bottle is tripped.]

 (1)              Convert raw frequency data to binary pressure, temperature and conductivity using SEABIRD's DATCNV program.  [.ROS file is based on either bottle flags within the data stream (normal), or on information from the .BSR file (manual procedure)]

(2)               Split the file into the up and down traces using SEABIRD's SPLIT program.

(3)               Check downcast for and mark any 'wild' data points with SEABIRD's WILDEDIT program.

(4)               Filter downcast conductivity and temperature using SEABIRD's FILTER program. This is a low pass filter and we used a time constant of 0.045 seconds for conductivity and 0.15 seconds for temperature.

(5)               Mark downcast scans where the CTD is moving less than the minimum velocity of 0.10 m/s using SEABIRD's LOOPEDIT program.

(6)               Align downcast pressure, temperature and conductivity using SEABIRD's ALIGNCTD program by advancing the conductivity signal by 0.01 sec.

(7)               Apply the thermal mass correction for the conductivity cell using SEABIRD's CELLTM program.

(8)               Compute dissolved oxygen in ml/l using SEABIRD's DERIVE program.

(9)               Create WOCE 2-dbar dataset using OSD program PRO-WOCE.

(10)             Bin average downcast data to 1.0-dbar intervals using SEABIRD's BINAVG program.

(11)             Compute downcast salinity, potential density(sq), potential temperature(q), and depth using SEABIRD's DERIVE program.

(12)             Convert the down cast from binary to ASCII using SEABIRD's TRANS program.

(13)             Convert downcast to ODF format using PCS program SEAODF.

(14)             Create IGOSS message using PCS program ODF_IGOS.

(15)             Prepare batch and command files to transfer the data to the VAX and create the input for SEABIRD's ROSSUM program using our customized MAKEFILE program.

(16)             Check for bottles, then use ROSSUM to create the rosette summary file.

(17)             Convert the resulting .BTL file to a format suitable for ingestion into Quattro PRO (.QAT file) using our customized QPROBTL program.

(18)             Create the calibration file of merged up- and down-cast data using OSD program CALIB.

(19)             Perform the FTP transfer of the raw binary and processed data to the VAX using OSD program CTD.XFER.

(20)             Copy Quattro, downcast, and ODF files to appropriate directories and clean up.

 

Plots and status info displayed by the SEASAVE program during the acquisition are discarded when the program terminates.  The post-processing plotting was not included in the batch job because SEABIRD's SEAPLOT program requires interactive operator attention.  Plots produced after each station include T, S, O2, and sq  vs. pressure and T vs. S.  Section plots were produced with Igor Yakashev’s contour package, modified to accept .ODF files.

 

5b.  Calibration

 

At the base of each CTD cast two rosette bottles were tripped, one of which carried a pair of digital thermometers (T347,T352). Salinity samples were drawn from each of the two bottles and analyzed onboard with an Guildline AutoSal salinometer.  The comparison of these standards against the SeaBird CTD (Table 2a below) shows that, after the removal of several obvious outliers, the offset in temperature is negligible, but that for salinity is significantly different from zero. Nevertheless, the standard deviations about the offsets are small and could be easily be explained by the differences in the “replicate” standards (the two salinity standards are not true replicates since they come from different bottles, tripped sequentially), so the calibrations for both T and S are considered generally acceptable.

 

The performance of the YSI O2 sensor was similar to that on previous cruises.  The surface values on the downtrace appeared to be fully equilibrated, thanks to a 3 min. waiting period (as suggested by the manufacturer), but there was usually a large hysteresis between the down- and uptraces in the vicinity of the pycnocline, and there were occasional spikes from the electronics.  The hysteresis probably results from a mismatch of the temperature and O2 sensors in the probe and might be improved by applying filters with appropriate phase lags. The dissolved oxygen samples collected from calibration bottles were analyzed on board with the automated titration unit borrowed from Marine Chemistry. These “replicates” agreed to within a standard deviation of 0.07 ml/l (Table 2a).  Comparisons between the YSI measurements and bottle samples revealed a small offset between the sensor and titrated values (Table 2a). After removal of significant outliers (based on replicate statistics), a linear regression analysis of titrated on sensor values at the bottom provides an effective calibration (Table 2b; Fig.2) with high correlation and low standard error (±0.07 ml/l).

 

Problems/Recommendations:

(1)               The aging General Oceanics rosettes should be replaced with SEABIRD systems as soon as possible to improve reliability of bottle tripping and data capture.

(2)               True replicate salinity and O2 samples should be drawn in future to remove the ambiguity involved in assessing the calibration standards.

(3)               Efforts should be made to remove the hysteresis between the up and down traces from the YSI sensor by application of filters with various lags.

 

5c.  Sections

 

CTD sections Ia,b, II, III, V, VI, and the Halifax Section (Figs. 3-9) depict hydrographic conditions, 1) along the eastern boundary of the Gulf of Maine, 2) across the sill in Northeast Channel, 3) down the western flank of Browns Bank, 4) along Truxton Swell separating Georges and Jordan Basins, 5) along the 200 m isobath on the eastern side of the Channel, 6) across the outer Scotian Shelf off Shelburne, and 7) across the entire Scotian Shelf off Halifax, respectively.  Section Ia (Fig.3) shows a surface layer of fresh water extending out from Cape Sable over the shelf, with pockets of S<31.5 near the coast and inshore edge of Browns Bank.  This contrasts with previous June sections (94018, 95010) when the freshest water (S<31.5) was found over the outer edge of Browns, with slightly higher salinities inshore.  The lowest temperatures are also found in the intermediate layer along the inshore edge of Browns.  The outer edge of Browns is stratified mainly by salinity and shows some evidence of mixing with slope waters (CTD13; Fig.3e).  Minimum oxygen values are also found near the bottom on the outer edge of the shelf.  The cold intermediate water (<5oC)  also disappears over the outer shelf.

 

The distribution of deep water properties on Section Ib (Fig.4) shows slope water characteristics (T>10oC, S>35, O2<4 ml/l) in the center of the Channel (CTD6) at depths of 100-200m.  The density section shows isopycnals sloping upward to the west, suggesting (geostrophically) a maximum inflow current near 100m at CTD6. Similarly, the flow between CTD4-5 would appear to be outward with a maximum somewhat higher in the water column, based on geostrophy and weak near-bottom flow. The T-S diagram (Fig.4e) gives clear evidence for interleaving between coastal and offshore water masses in the Channel.  Surface waters on Georges Bank appear to be somewhat more saline than on Browns or in the Channel by roughly 0.4.

 

Section II (Fig.5) shows the presence of slope water on the western flank of Browns Bank, with T>10oC and S>35 at CTD31-33.  CTD33 also shows a well-developed cold intermediate layer above the slope water, but the deeper stations some mixing with other water masses at intermediate depths.  The surface waters are freshest on the eastern side of the section, and CTD 34 appears to represent a vertically-mixed version of the top 100m of water at CTD33. The sloping isopycnals suggest inflow maxima at 50-100m at CTD32-33.  A large volume of low oxygen water (O2<4 ml/l) lies in the deeper regions of Georges Basin.

 

The properties along Truxton Swell (Fig.6) show no evidence for slope water intrusion, with just a hint of higher salinity and temperature water passing over the sill at CTD25.  Conditions east of that point are generally well-mixed, relative to those in the central Gulf.  The freshest surface water lies over the eastern half of the section and the T-S diagram (Fig.6e) shows some variability of intermediate layer properties at CTD28-29.

 

Conditions on Section V (Fig.7), from Truxton Swell to the mouth of Northeast Channel along the eastern 200m isobath, are quite variable, showing pockets of slope and cold intermediate waters at various locations and depths.  This is undoubtedly due, in part, to aliasing by the temporal variability in the Channel.  CTD 39, on the 600 m isobath off the mouth of the Channel, features warm slope water at depths of 50-150 m and warm mixtures of coastal and slope water near the surface.  Strong interleaving of these with coastal water masses occurs at CTD35-38, whereas conditions are more uniform in the vertical at the interior stations, CTD32,26 (Fig.7e).  The freshest surface water, S<31, is found near the mooring line at CTD36,37.

 

Section VI (Fig.8) reveals a stark contrast between classic Scotian Shelf and slope water structures.  CTD41-42 feature a warm, fresh layer overlying a cold (<2oC) intermediate layer with warmer, saltier water near the bottom.  Between CTD42 and 43 there is a transition of the intermediate and deep layers to slope water, while the surface layer remains relatively fresh and warm.  The isopycnal slopes suggest slight intensification of the presumed westward flow from the bottom up to roughly the 50m level over the shelf break.  Note also that the minimum surface salinities are found at the shelf break (CTD42-43; Fig.8e).  The cold intermediate layer is associated with very high dissolved oxygen, whereas an O­2 minimum is found at depths of 150-250m in the slope water.

 

The Halifax Section data (Fig.9) reveal three separate surface water masses across the shelf.  Inshore (CTD50-51) the surface salinity is near 30 and the cold intermediate minimum is near 31.5; at midshelf the surface is near 30.9 and the minimum near 32.2; and finally at the shelf break, the surface is near 32 and the minimum near 33.  The intermediate temperature minimum generally increases offshore, except for an anomalous cold patch at the outer edge of the section (CTD45).  The T-S plot (Fig.9e) indicates a high degree of interleaving between shelf and slope water masses at the offshore end of the section as well.  The isopycnal slopes (Fig.9c) indicate westward flow near the coast and at the shelf break would be surface intensified, and the oxygen section (Fig.9d) shows similar values in the bottom of Bedford Basin and offshore at depths of 250-350m.

 

 

6. ADCP TRANSECTS

 

The RDI ADCP was run continuously over the cruise in the bottom track mode.  The velocity measurements were made in 100 4-m bins below the transducer depth (4.9 m).  In the standard acquisition mode, 10-ping ensembles were averaged over 5 minutes to create processed profiles of velocity, beam intensity, etc.  The RDI system appeared to work well over the cruise.

 

Ten primary transects (6 full, 4 partial; Table 3) formed the repeated ADCP section across the Channel, including CTD Sections Ib and the transits during mooring operations.  On these transects, only the averaged processed data were collected.  A total of 16 hrs was devoted to straight-run transects, with an additional 20 hrs spent on the CTD and mooring lines (transects 1,2,4).  Some of the transects (2,3,5,10) were incomplete due to operational constraints.

 

A calibration of the transducer alignment and amplification factor was conducted shortly after leaving BIO, on the straight run down to SW Nova Scotia.  The results (Table 3a) show that both these quantities are negligibly different from their design values of 0 deg. and 1.00, respectively.

 

 

Acknowledgements:

 

We are greatly indebted to the officers and crew of the C.S.S. Parizeau for their skilled assistance and friendly cooperation, which was vital to the success of this mission.


 

TABLE 1.  Moorings Recovered During Parizeau Cruise 97025, 27 June-4 July, 1997

Mooring     Site              N. Lat.            Recovery          Instrument              Comments

No.            (Depth,m)   W. Long.          Time(Z),Date    (Depth,m)

 

1238          SEFA         41o19.36’         1419,Jun.29     SCAT1238(24)      hairy growth, cell clear

                  (94)            66o28.33’                                 RCM4600(25)         “  “  , rotor free,  “  “

 

1239          SEF           41o19.37’         1357,Jun.29     RCM7592(51)         “  “  ,  “  “  ,  “  “

                  (96)            66o28.49’                                 RCM2664(86)         “  “ , rotor impeded by

                                                                                                                    growth, cell clear

                                                                                    TG343(96)             hairy growth

 

1240          NECWA    42o07.78’         1948,Jun.28     SCAT1019(25)      heavy growth, cell clear

                  (215)          66o00.91’                                 RCM7122(26)         “  “  , rotor free,  “  “

 

1241          NECW      42o07.64’         2250,Jun.28     RCM7525(54)       drag mooring, rotor free

                  (214)          66o00.75’                                 RCM6400(104)       “  “  ,  “  “

                                                                                    RCM6411(154)       “  “  ,  “  “

                                                                                    RCM6412(194)     line parted, instr. lost

                                                                                    TG109(214)             “  “  ,  “  “

 

1242          NECEA     42o17.72’         1533,Jun.28     SCAT1237(23)      no floats, on bottom

                  (213)          65o50.43’                                 RCM9355(24)       “  “ , “  “ , rotor free

 

1243          NECE        42o17.87’         1615,Jun.28     RCM7131(54)       light growth, rotor free

                  (214)          65o50.79’                                 RCM4195(104)       “  “  ,  “  “

                                                                                    RCM4355(154)     clean, rotor free

                                                                                    RCM5577(194)       “  ,  “  “

                                                                                    TG336(214)           clean

 


TABLE 2.  CTD Stations During Parizeau 97025, 27 June-4 July, 1997

 

Stn.        N.LAT.    W.LONG.       Sound.         Date                  Year              Time

No.                                                   (m)                                        Day             [UTC]

           

    0        44.683       63.647                62          Jun 27 1997           178            15:28:00

    1        42.297       65.848               215         Jun 28 1997           179            17:42:00

    2        42.132       66.010               222                                                         19:20:00

    3        41.998       66.136                84          Jun 29 1997           180            02:03:02

    4        42.063       66.078                89                                                          02:54:13

    5        42.132       65.992               213                                                         04:02:32

    6        42.198       65.931               221                                                         04:57:46

    7        41.733       66.533                74                                                          10:54:00

    8        41.322       66.483                94                                                          13:35:00

    9        41.778       66.344                75                                                          17:51:13

   10       42.268       65.868               223                                                         21:36:54

   11       42.336       65.797               190                                                         22:36:17

   12       42.425       65.747                96                                                          23:33:46

   13       42.500       65.740                84          Jun 30 1997           181            00:29:11

   14       42.583       65.743                88                                                          01:37:57

   15       42.672       65.746                86                                                          02:44:06

   16       42.752       65.758                99                                                          04:39:38

   17       42.835       65.756                98                                                          05:40:31

   18       42.920       65.754               145                                                         06:32:30

   19       43.000       65.750               128                                                         07:29:47

   20       43.086       65.745                91                                                          08:26:18

   21       43.166       65.745                52                                                          10:28:54

   22       43.247       65.745                41                                                          11:24:29

   23       43.278       66.437                63                                                          15:52:12

   24       43.215       66.647               108                                                         17:08:15

   25       43.171       66.865               160                                                         18:35:14

   26       43.136       67.102               178                                                         20:06:17

   27       43.169       67.318               191                                                         21:33:00

   28       43.121       67.556               178                                                         23:06:01

   29       43.001       67.739               167         Jul 01 1997            182            00:36:10

   30       42.925       67.996               168                                                         03:16:00

   31       42.507       66.960               324                                                         09:24:00

   32       42.591       66.779               222                                                         10:58:00

   33       42.707       66.612               166                                                         12:33:00

   34       42.801       66.434               100                                                         13:49:00

   35       42.509       66.179               217                                                         16:20:54

   36       42.426       65.980               217                                                         17:41:41

   37       42.299       65.846               212                                                         19:01:47

   38       42.192       65.702               214         Jul 02 1997            183            11:30:27

   39       42.092       65.511               617                                                         13:17:41

   40       42.177       65.499               114                                                         14:23:56

   41       42.894       64.501               100                                                         21:14:29

   42       42.751       64.362               113                                                         22:45:53

   43       42.678       64.294               232                                                         23:45:56

   44       42.609       64.226               934         Jul 03 1997            184            00:58:34

   45       42.850       61.732               506                                                         12:45:25

   46       43.000       61.895               149                                                         14:15:36

   47       43.183       62.100                97                                                          15:57:03

   48       43.484       62.451                80                                                          18:26:39

    49       43.884       62.884               259                                                         22:19:21

   50       44.267       63.317               150         Jul 04 1997            185            01:38:26

   51       44.401       63.450                80                                                          02:59:58

 


 

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TABLE 2a. Temperature and Salinity Calibration Results for Parizeau 97025

QUANTITY                              NO. SAMPLES         MEAN DIFF.              STD. DEV.

 

                                            CTD vs. Standard

 

Salinity:

CTD-AutoSal.                                  73                           -0.024                        0.011

 

Temperature:

CTD-Thermometers                          77                           -0.002                        0.020

 

Dissolved Oxygen:

YSI-Titration(1-41)                          91                           -0.22                         0.08

 

                                                          

                                         Standard vs. Standard

 

Salinity:

Btl.1-Btl.2.                                        39                           -0.003                        0.025

 

Temperature:

T878-T881                                       38                           0.001                         0.004

 

Dissolved Oxygen:

 Btl.1-Btl.2.(1-41)                             45                             -0.003                      0.071

 

 

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TABLE 2b. Dissolved Oxygen Regression Results for Parizeau 97025

                                       Y = aX+b  (Y=titration, X=sensor)

SENSOR(CTD)              NO. SAMPLES            a±da                      b±db(ml/l)      ±dY(ml/l)        r2

 

YSI(1-41)                                91                1.0404±0.0083              0.023±0.023   ±0.070           .994                                                0.98

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TABLE 3  Primary ADCP Transects During Parizeau 97-025

 

NO.            DATE         STRT          END                 FROM                    TO                 COMMENTS

                   (m-d)           (UTC)         (UTC)            (Lat./Long.)            (Lat./Long.)

 

   1               06-28          14:45          01:50          42°25'/65°45'          42°00'/66°08'       moorings

   2               06-29          02:00          05:00          42°00'/66°08'          42°12'/65°56'       CTD3-6

   3               06-              05:00          06:30          42°12'/65°56'          42°00'/66°08'       CTD6-NEP

   4               06-              18:30          23:50          42°00'/66°08'          42°26'/65°44'       CTD9-12

   5               07-01          18:50          20:00          42°18'/65°51'          42°26'/65°45'       CTD37,partial

   6               07-              20:14          23:19          42°26'/65°45'          42°00'/66°09'

   7               07-              23:19          02:20          42°00'/66°09'          42°26'/65°45'

   8               07-02          02:28          05:40          42°26'/65°45'          42°00'/66°09'

  9               07-              05:50          09:09          42°00'/66°09'          42°26'/65°45'      

10               07-              09:09          10:10          42°26'/65°45'          42°18'/65°51'       partial

 

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TABLE 3a.  Straight Run RDI Calibrations for Parizeau 97-025

DATE:                            27 June, 1997

 

TIME                             MISALIGNMENT ANGLE              AMPLIFICATION FACTOR

                                                     (deg.)                                                     (-)

22:27:41                                      -2.237                                                1.032

22:32:45                                      0.300                                                 1.039

22:37:49                                      -0.140                                                0.975

22:42:44                                      -1.207                                                1.019

22:47:49                                      -1.102                                                0.997

22:52:44                                      -0.369                                                1.012

22:57:49                                      -1.100                                                1.003

AVERAGE                                 -0.737                                                1.008

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FIGURE CAPTIONS:

 

Figure 1            a) Mooring sites, and b) CTD positions and ADCP transects for C.S.S. Parizeau

                        Cruise 97-025, 27 June-4 July 1997

 

Figure 2            Calibration data for the YSI dissolved oxygen sensor. Titrated values from rosette bottle samples are plotted against uptrace values from the sensor at the same depth.  Bold line through the points is a linear regression of titrated on sensor values (Table 2b).  Dashed and dotted lines represent calibrations from data other than those plotted.

 

Figure 3            Hydrographic section Ia (CTD22-12) from Cape Sable to the offshore edge of

                        Browns Bank.

                                    (a) temperature,

                                    (b) salinity,

                                    (c) sigma-q,

                                    (d) dissolved oxygen,

                                    (e) temperature vs. salinity, and

                                    (f) station map

 

Figure 4            Hydrographic section Ib (CTD3-6,10-12) across Northeast Channel at the mooring line.

                                    (a) temperature,

                                    (b) salinity,

                                    (c) sigma-q,

                                    (d) dissolved oxygen,

                                    (e) temperature vs. salinity, and

                                    (f) station map

 

Figure 5            Hydrographic section II (CTD34-31) on the western flank of Browns Bank.

                                    (a) temperature,

                                    (b) salinity,

                                    (c) sigma-q,

                                    (d) dissolved oxygen,

                                    (e) temperature vs. salinity, and

                                    (f) station map

 

Figure 6            Hydrographic section III (CTD23-30) aolng Truxton Swell.

                                    (a) temperature,

                                    (b) salinity,

                                    (c) sigma-q,

                                    (d) dissolved oxygen,

                                    (e) temperature vs. salinity, and

                                    (f) station map

 

Figure 7            Hydrographic section V (CTD26,32,35-39) along the slope water inflow axis (~200m isobath) from Georges Basin to the mouth of Northeast Channel.

                                    (a) temperature,

                                    (b) salinity,

                                    (c) sigma-q,

                                    (d) dissolved oxygen,

                                    (e) temperature vs. salinity, and

                                    (f) station map

 

Figure 8            Hydrographic section VI (CTD41-44) across the Scotian Shelf break off Shelburne.

                                    (a) temperature,

                                    (b) salinity,

                                    (c) sigma-q,

                                    (d) dissolved oxygen,

                                    (e) temperature vs. salinity, and

                                    (f) station map

 

Figure 9            Halifax hydrographic section  (CTD45-50) from the Scotian Shelf break to Halifax.

                                    (a) temperature,

                                    (b) salinity,

                                    (c) sigma-q,

                                    (d) dissolved oxygen,

                                    (e) temperature vs. salinity, and

                                    (f) station map