GLOBEC SJ9508 Cruise Report


We gratefully acknowledge the assistance provided by the officers and crew of the R/V Seward Johnson and the Marine Technical Group of the University of Miami, Florida.

This report was prepared by Neil Oakey, Dave Hebert, Mark Berman, Lew Incze and Sandy Williams. This cruise was sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.


Cruise Narrative p 2

Individual Reports p 2

Microstructure Measurements p 3

ADCP Measurements p 4

CTD Measurements p 5

BASS Recovery Operations, IMET Buoy Repairs p 7

Acoustic Measurements of Small-Scale Plankton Distributions p 8

Vertical Distribution of Small Zooplankton p 9

Appendix 1. Personnel List p11

Appendix 2. Tables p12

Appendix 3. Figures p16

Appendix 4. Eventlog p29

Cruise Objectives

The overall objectives of the cruise were focussed around obtaining turbulence intensities and mixing rates at two sites on the southern flank of Georges Bank as part of the program to study the development of stratification. During the current cruise two sites were studied extensively, one on the bank in about 44 meters of water where the water was very unstratified and a second site near the main stratification mooring (Beardsley). This cruise is considered to be a time when stratification is developing and the results will be used to compare to the situation six weeks earlier when there was little stratification. CTD data were obtained as part of this cruise both in support of the mixing studies and to establish the large scale features in the temperature, salinity and density field. Other operations were done to some extent from the vessel as a ship of opportunity. In particular the following specific objectives defined the cruise operation.

  1. Conduct EPSONDE anchor stations at a shallow mixed site and the main stratification mooring, ST1.

  1. Collect ADCP data.

  2. Make CTD sections as time and weather permit.

  3. Recover and reset BASS tripod at ST1.

  4. Repair the ST1 surface mooring.

  5. Collect acoustic measurements of small-scale plankton distributions.

  6. Collect biological samples using a pumped system.

    Cruise Narrative

    The Seward Johnson left Woods Hole about 1240 EDT June 6, 1995 (Tuesday) and started steaming towards the first CTD site on the southern flank. We arrived on station at site A12 (Table 2) for CTD1 at about 0400 on June 7 and started a cross-shelf CTD transect. A second CTD at A11 was done and we proceeded to the ST1 mooring site to rendezvous with the R/V Edwin Link at 0800 and to transfer personnel for BASS recovery operations using the Link's mini-sub. A recovery line on BASS was released by the sub and the Seward Johnson attempted recovery operations starting about 1200. Rough weather and strong tides in the proximity of the guard buoys contributed to an unsuccessful recovery.

    Moderate seas forced us to suspend operations. We steamed slowly to site A1 to start a pre-cruise CTD survey before operations at anchor began. A section from A1 (Table 2) started at 0700 on June 8 (Thursday) and continued to A12, completing about 1700. The long term survey line was then started from LT13 (Table 2) about 1830 and completed at LT1 at 0500 on June 9 (Friday).

    We then anchored ship at the "shallow EPSONDE" site, and began microstructure profiling at about 0800 on June 9 (Friday). The procedure was to make 20 EPSONDE profiles followed by a CTD cast. This required about two hours. Incze attached his pump to the CTD to obtain vertical profiles of zooplankton at the end of two of the CTD casts per day at the shallow site, one in the morning and one in the afternoon. The TAPS instrument (Berman and Greene) was installed on the CTD frame and a profile was obtained during each regular CTD profile. Twice per day, around noon and around midnight a tow-yo CTD was done to give multiple TAPS profiles. The ship was at anchor for about 35 hours until 1945 on June 10 (Saturday). During this time there were 20 EPSONDE stations (377 profiles), 21 CTDs, 4 pumping stations and 3 TAPS series. Both the 150 kHz and 600 kHz broad-band ADCPs were run. Water depth at this site was about 44m, and the tidal currents were of order 1 m/s.

    We then steamed to ST1 and anchored about 2200 on June 10 to begin a long term series in this region where the stratification was beginning to develop. The operation was the same as at the shallow site with 20 EPSONDE profiles, a CTD with bottle samples for calibration, and continuous ADCP operation for both 150kHz and 600kHz instruments. Incze did three pumping profiles each day, early morning, mid-day and late afternoon if conditions permitted. There were occasions when the tide and waves forced the pump hose under the ship and in this case, the profile was aborted. Tow-yo TAPS profiles were done twice per day with single profiles along with each CTD cast. The anchor station lasted more that 4 days until June 15 (0600). There were occasional periods when the wind, waves and tide made it impossible to do EPSONDE but nevertheless, 41 EPSONDE stations (816 profiles) were done. Over 45 CTD's were done to complement the EPSONDE data as well as 9 detailed TAPS tow-yos and 11 pump profiles. Mid-way through the anchor station we installed Hebert's SBE CTD on the CTD frame to try and examine problems with the NBIS CTD. Work at the site was terminated to give us time to complete a final CTD survey line.

    The final survey line repeated the line A12 to A1 through the stratification mooring site. It commenced about 1000 on June 15, and was completed about 1815. The ship departed for Woods Hole, arriving about 0830 on June 16. A chronology of the experimental activities is given in the event log in Appendix 4. All Tables are in Appendix 2 and Figures are in Appendix 3.

    Microstructure Measurements.Neil Oakey

    Microstructure measurements were made during the experiment using the tethered free-fall profiler, EPSONDE. The instrument was deployed from the stern of the Seward Johnson while the ship was at anchor. The instrument is tethered to the ship with a kevlar multi-conductor cable which is fed out very loosely using a capstan at the rail so that the instrument has essentially the characteristics of a free-fall vehicle. Because the ship was at anchor, the tidal current carried the instrument astern out of the way of obstructions on the vessel. Sufficient cable was deployed to allow the instrument to hit the bottom. Data were recorded on a shipboard PC in real time.

    During descent, the instrument measures temperature, conductivity and depth with a basic CTD. Two sensors measure the turbulent mixing rate to scales as small as 1 cm and a fast thermistor and a thin-film thermometer measure the temperature microstructure to scales of less than 1 cm. From these signals we are able to estimate the turbulent mixing rate and the vertical diffusivity plus several other microstructure quantities. When the instrument hits the bottom, the sensors come within about 5 cm of the bottom in the center of a circular 30 cm diameter bottom lander. It is relatively easy for sensors to be broken and that was our experience on other experiments. On this cruise we were fortunate and no sensors got broken although the bottom lander was quit bent after a few hours profiling.

    The measurements focussed on two sites, one on the bank in about 44 meters of water where the water was very unstratified and a second site near the main stratification mooring in a depth of about 75 meters where stratification was just starting to develop. Two anchor stations were done. At 41o08'N, 67o44.8'W in 44 meters of water a series of about 35 hours of profiling was done from about 0800 on June 9 until about 1930 on June 10. This series consisted of typically 20 EPSONDE profiles followed by a CTD profile. Biological pumping profiles or TAPS profiles were done at CTD times. This operation was done with little wind and the vessel tracked the current well so that the instrument always tracked astern. At this shallow site we did 20 EPSONDE stations and a total of 377 profiles. We moved to the stratification site and anchored again. This anchor station lasted more that 4 days until June 15 (0600). There were occasional periods when the wind, waves and tide made it impossible to do EPSONDE but nevertheless, 41 EPSONDE stations (816 profiles) were done. This series over eight tidal cycles should provide a detailed picture of mixing in this region. The data that we obtained appeared to be generally of good quality. Enough of the data were analyzed in a preliminary way aboard the vessel to assure that the instrument was performing well and to give us a preliminary picture of the mixing rates at the two sites.

    A preliminary look a subset of the data was done on-board both to quality check the data and to determine any instrument problems. Typically the data were analyzed from one hourly burst before the next burst was completed. This allowed one to evaluate any sensor damage that might have occurred when the instrument hit bottom and make any repairs. As an illustration of the data from the two sites representative profiles from the shallow unstratified site and the stratified site are shown in Figures 1 and 2 respectively. At the unstratified site profile 20 of station 18 is shown in Figure 1. The water has nearly constant temperature and salinity from top to bottom and the turbulence is strongest at the bottom (just more than 10-6W/kg), decreasing with height above the bottom by about a factor of 20. It must be remembered that from drop to drop and between stations there is a large variability. At the deeper stratified site, profile 5 from station 38 is shown. The temperature and salinity show a surface mixed layer overlying a well mixed layer from about 20 m deep to the bottom. A strong thermocline separates the two regions. Levels of dissipation are similar to the shallow site at the bottom but decrease about two orders of magnitude from the bottom to the base of the thermocline. Vertical diffusivities at both sites are of order 10-1at the bottom and decrease with height above the bottom, about a factor of ten at the shallow site and about two orders of magnitude at the ST1 site.

    ADCP Measurements.Dave Hebert

    On SJ9508, three RDI ADCPs (two broad-band ADCPs, 150 and 600 kHz, and one narrow-band 150 kHz ADCP) were used at different times (see Table 1). For the broad-band 600 kHz ADCP, data were collected after the time shown in Table 1. It was decided that since this ADCP collected the most data, a single CDROM would be used for it. The actual end time of this data will depend on how much data the CDROM will hold. The narrow-band ADCP continued to collect data until we returned to Woods Hole. However, the data were not recorded with the Woods Hole region (see description of narrow-band system below). The broad-band 150 kHz ADCP was located in the Straza tower and could be only operated at ship speeds less than 6 kts. Therefore, we used the narrow-band 150 kHz ADCP while steaming and the broad-band 150 kHz while on long-term stations. The 600 kHz ADCP was operated during the period we were on Georges Bank. The broad-band ADCP data were logged using the TRANSECT program. Based on discussions with Julio Candela and Charlie Flagg, it was decided that the ensembles in the raw data files would consist of a single water ping and a single bottom-tracking ping in beam coordinates. These short raw ensembles have large error velocities. Navigation data were recorded with each ensemble. Post-processing will produce velocities in earth coordinates. Charlie Flagg's user exit routines for the RDI DAS were used for the narrow-band ADCP. His routines reconfigure the ADCP whenever the ship moves into different geographic locations. This software package had been used on the R/V ENDEAVOR's GLOBEC cruises. Overall, the three ADCPs worked well. There were two minor problems with the logging of the data. Occasionally, the broad-band ADCPs would lose the navigation data. The acquisition of data had to be stopped and re-started. This only happened to one of the broad-band ADCPs at any time. The other problem was with the narrow-band ADCP. Flagg's program will state that it was having 'communication errors' and would perform its re-booting procedure. It appears that this would happen for several minutes before the error would disappear. Finally, it was noticed that the time to start the acquisition of data increased with time -the PC spent a large time accessing the hard disk. It is unclear why this problem occurs. It is there even when all TRANSECT files have been removed from the hard disk. Thus, there are gaps in the ADCP data acquisition on the order of a half hour. There is a gap of several hours when the 600 kHz ADCP filled the hard disk (Table 1). The TRANSECT program reported enough disk space available for another 24 hours of data collection. A significant fraction of the downtime (over 7 hours) was due to transferring the data to the VAX for backup and deleting of the files on the PC.

    CTD Measurements. Dave Hebert

    The R/V SEWARD JOHNSON is equipped with a NBIS Mark III (with WOCE upgrade) CTD profiling system (IM960560) on loan from the University of Miami. In addition to the standard temperature, conductivity and pressure sensors, the fish also supports sensors for fast

    temperature, light transmission, fluorescence, PAR, dissolved oxygen and height from bottom. This fish was used for the latter portion of SJ9506 after the first fish died. UMiami EG&G software is used for data acquisition, processing and archiving. The acoustic packages (TAPS) supplied by Jack Green and Mark Berman (NMFS) was mounted on the rosette near the CTD package. Knowing that the R/V SEWARD JOHNSON had only one working CTD, Dave Hebert brought a Sea Bird SBE 25 CTD, with pumped sensors, as a backup.

    After leaving Woods Hole, we proceeded to the southern part of the CTD transect through the ST moorings. The first two CTD stations (A12 and A11 - Table 2) were completed. The section was terminated to meet the R/V EDWIN LINK at 0800 at the ST1 mooring site to start the recovery of the BASS tripod. After the BASS tripod recovery attempt, we proceeded to the northern CTD station and completed the CTD transect A1 to A12 (Figure 3). After this line was completed, a CTD line through the long-term moorings were completed LT13 to LT1 (Figure 4).

    We then anchored at the shallow turbulence site and began a series of CTD and EPSONDE casts. The CTD casts consisted of three possible modes of operation:

    (1) a standard cast to within 5 m of bottom with two bottles fired at the bottom and one at the top,

    (2) a pump cast consisting of a CTD profile to within 5 m of bottom with no bottles, following a cast of less than 50 m with frequent stops lasting several minutes on the up cast for taking pumped samples.

    (3) a series of slow (approximately 10 m/min) CTD yo-yos lasting approximately one hour for detailed TAPS sampling within the upper 50 m, followed by a standard CTD cast with bottles to within 5 m of the bottom.

    The temperature (Figure 5), salinity and density data shows that this shallow region was well-mixed. Given the similarity of conditions here to those found during the previous cruise (SJ9506), it was decided to occupy this station only for 1.5 days. We then proceeded to ST1 for another anchor station. At ST1, we proceeded to perform the suite of CTD and EPSONDE casts. At this location, there was much more vertical structure to the temperature, salinity, density and fluorescence (Figure 6). However, it was noted in the initial post-processing of the NBIS CTD data (the same EG&G software and first differencing parameters as used during SJ9506 were used) that large oscillations occurred in salinity. Only after calculating sigma_theta, we realized that there was a problem. These large salinity spikes produced density inversions (see Figure 7 as an example). At the first anchor station, these inversions were small since the water column was well-mixed. At first, we had assumed that the NB cell was dirty and we cleaned it with a 1% solution of Triton X100 (which I had brought for cleaning the Sea Bird SBE 25). As the surface water became stratified, the salinity (and density) inversions became larger. It was decided to strap the SBE 25 to the rosette (replacing two of the bottles) to inter-compare the two CTDs. From the SBE 25 data, it is evident that something is wrong with the NB's calculated salinity (Figures 7 and 8). A comparison of the two conductivities showed general agreement between the two sensors (which a small offset in the pressure). It seems that the NB CTD is working fine and there is a problem in either the calibration of temperature and/or conductivity or the time lags used in the salinity calculations. At this time, it is not possible to determine if the calibration of the CTD is slightly incorrect. [Based on the salinity samples collected, Don C. (RSMAS) has found that there is an offset in the NB salinity of the order 0.008.]

    For the remainder of the cruise, we used the SBE 25 temperature, salinity, and density for our ship-board analysis (in the following figures only the first down cast of the CTD yo-yos is shown). In order to save batteries, we did not operate the SBE 25 during the pumping portion of the pumped CTD casts. The SBE 25 shows much more regular structure to the water column for the remainder of the ST1 anchor station (Figure 9). Following this anchor station, we repeated the A1 - A12 CTD line (Figure 10) before heading back to Woods Hole.

    BASS Recovery Operations and IMET Buoy Repair.Albert J. Williams 3rd

    Attempted Bass Recovery

    We met the R/V Edwin Link at 0830 EDT June 7 at ST1 site. After transferring crew, they rigged the DSRV SeaLink and dove at 1028. The tropical low, Allison, had moved close to us but the seas were 4' to 6' and not yet building. By 1110 the sub had found BASS upright in 76 meters of water with the second release float in place. They poked the float and it rose, carrying its recovery line. The sub was recovered with some difficulty and at 1230, we moved in to pick up the float. The seas were now larger and the line that had come up south of the SW guard buoy was now slightly wrapped to the west. Spacing between the guard buoy and the float was one-third ship's length.

    We finally got the float hooked and, by backing into the sea, got the slack to transfer the lift line to our winch. When pulling in, the guard buoy was towed under until only its light was showing. We slacked off line and backed more around until we were south of the guard buoy. Then we hauled some more. At 1306 the line parted below the surface and we recovered 250' of the 600' of 1/2" Nystron lift line that had been packed in the recovery crate. Now we have both floats and parts of both recovery lines, the other pieces having been recovered in April. The SW guard buoy has claimed both our recovery lines.

    We asked the Link if they would dive again to attach a short lift line to the tripod but the sea was too high. Their window of availability was to close at 0800 June 9 and at 1800 June 7, based on the 1400 June 7 fax weather forecast, they left for Gloucester. Conditions did not improve until June 9, confirming their decision to leave. Allison became a storm, 984.3 mbar on board Seward Johnson, 23' seas. We could not start CTDs until 0500 June 8.

    Repair of IMET Buoy at ST1

    Todd Morrison, Naomi Fraenkel, Gray, and I went to the damaged IMET buoy at ST1 at 1030 EDT June 11 in 5 kn of wind and low swell. Only one solar panel remained on the buoy; the other two were gone leaving broken fiberglass struts and dangling cables. Three cable ends had broken at the panels and were complete through the RTV coated cable connectors. The fourth cable had broken before the connector and had left bare wires. The cut cable was trimmed and taped and all cables were dressed and taped to the frame. All the metal parts of the solar panel mounts were present and looked fine.

    The VAWR looked ok, all cups present. But it didn't turn easily. It felt frozen. I spun it with my finger and soon it seemed free. Later it had stopped again and I took the cups off to see if there was salt on the shaft. There was none and the shaft spun smoothly. I put the cups back on and it turned in the 5 kn breeze but later stopped again. Perhaps the wind was too light.

    The R.M. Young anemometer was missing a tail and one blade on the fan. It was bent about 6 degrees too. I took the sensor off and felt the angle transducer. It was rough but could be turned with only slight friction in part of its range. The pickup piece looked a little worn, rough plastic surfaces on the edges of the wheel. But the edges play no role in the direction sensing and the notch was intact. There was nothing to straighten that I could see so the new sensor was put on. It aligned easily, snapped into place, and the fan spun in the little wind there was. Cups on the VAWR were not turning at that time. The Young vane pointed the same way as the freely pivoting VAWR vane.

    The LWR (Long Wavelength Radiometer) was half out of its brackets. It was pushed up, out of the lower bracket entirely, inclined 30 degrees in the upper bracket, its taut cable keeping it from falling out entirely. The upper bracket, fixed half, had lost its rubber pad. The new LWR was installed, two rubber pads were taken from the spare brackets to enable the upper bracket to grip the LWR (one was placed where the missing pad had been and the other was cut short and stuffed between the moveable bracket and the LWR), and the clamps were tightened only until they could no longer be moved by hand. The connector was greased and plugged in and the cable was tie wrapped and abrasion protected with spiral wrap where it crossed a plate. It looked good. Pictures were taken.

    Acoustic measurements of small scale plankton distributions. Mark Berman and Jack Green


Two TRACOR Acoustic Profiling System (TAPS) were deployed attached to the CTD cage on 165 casts. TAPS is a self contained internally recording acoustic device designed to measure abundance and biomass of plankton-sized particles. TAPS uses concentrically focused multiple transducers to ensonify a 0.1m3volume centered approximately 1.5m from the transducer surface. The two instruments differ in that one (TAPS4) sampled at four frequencies (265, 420, 1100 and 3000 kHz) while the second, (TAPS6) developed more recently, has two additional transducers operating at 700 and 1850kHz..

Three different series of deployments were made, which will yield information on three aspects of plankton distribution. One series of deployments was on the CTD transects sampled during this cruise. These TAPS data will show how the vertical distribution of the zooplankton change from the shoal water on the top of the bank to the deeper water on the southern flank. The second and third series of deployments were carried out at the two long term anchored stations. TAPS routinely sampled at each CTD cast (approximately every two hours) giving time-series that will show how fine scale plankton distributions change diurnally. The third mode of deployment was a series of yoyos. For this mode, the instruments were repeatedly lowered and raised through the top 50 m of the water column at 10 m/minute, for a period of 1 hour. These deployments were carried out twice per day (at approximately noon and midnight) at each of the long term stations. When tidal current carrying plankton past the instruments is taken into account, this mode of deployment will yield data on the horizontal patchiness of the plankton.

Each TAPS observation consists of time, depth, temperature, and volume back-scattering strength from each transducer. TAPS 4 recorded one observation every 5 seconds, TAPS 6, one observation every 6 seconds. Each instrument was set to average the return of 24 pings into each observations. Figure one shows the raw data from a typical TAPS deployment at the stratified long term sampling site. Both temperature and acoustic data in this figure has been binned into 1 meter increments. Temperature ranged from about 10 at the surface to about 7 below 40m. The signal strength recorded by each of the four transducers is shown on the right frame of Figure 11. The differences between the echo strengths can be used to calculate the number and sizes of the particles the signals were reflected by. This inverse calculation is based on the assumption the plankton reflects sound as fluid filled spheres (this assumption appears to be correct for copepods, but insufficient for larger, rarer plankton groups, e.g. euphausiids). Preliminary results of the inverse calculation of the data shown in Figure 11 is displayed in Figure 12. It shows that most of the planktonic biomass consisted of particles in a 0.2 mm ESR size range. ESR is Equivalent Spherical Radius, the radius of a sphere having the same volume as the measured particle. A particle with an ESR of 0.2 mm is equivalent to a copepod with a body length of about 0.8 mm. These 0.2 mm ESR particle were present throughout the water column, with some dense patches in and beneath the thermocline. There were also several smaller concentrations of larger plankters, especially near the bottom of the thermocline. Analysis of the data collected during this cast may change with post-cruise calibration of the instrument, and refinement of the parameters used for the inverse. These results were included to demonstrate the type of information which will be developed from data collected during this cruise.

Vertical Distribution of Small Zooplankton in Relation to Hydrographic Structure and Microscale Turbulence. Lew Incze and Jack Green

Pump sampling was used to examine the vertical distribution of small zooplankton, with an emphasis on the transition from the surface mixed layer, through the pycnocline and into the lower mixed layer at the stratified anchor station. Sampling was bracketed by EPSONDE time series and was immediately preceded by a standard CTD cast. The CTD was returned to deck and the end of our sampling hose was attached near the bottom of the rosette frame. The hose was lowered independently over the side using the CTD to control depth and record conditions throughout sampling. We used a system that delivered approximately 255 l min-1 to the deck and cleared in less than 1 minute. Lines were allowed to clear between samples. On deck the water passed through a manifold and a reduced volume, 31 l min-1, was passed through a succession of small sampling nets with 40 µm mesh. Variations in flow, which are generally small, are monitored with a flow meter on one of the main lines from the manifold (Jack Green's work) and will be used to adjust flow rate calculations. Sampling in the small nets was timed with a stop watch, with a target of 1 minute (31 l) per sampled depth. Samples (up to 12 per cast) were preserved in a small volume of buffered formalin for later analysis.

Our objective was to obtain two casts per day x 2 days in the mixed area and three per day x 3 days at the stratified anchor site. One scheduled opportunity for sampling had to be cancelled and one abandoned due to adverse sea state and currents (e.g., taking the hose under the ship), problems peculiar to anchoring for this type of sampling. On the other hand, extremely good weather enabled us to regulate the depth of sampling with high precision and to have all of our work bracketed with excellent EPSONDE time series.

Extracted chlorophyll samples were taken from Niskin bottles to calibrate the in situ fluorometer data. Samples were taken at multiple depths at the two anchor stations and during the final CTD transect (A line). A sample summary is listed in Table 4.

Appendix 1. Personnel List

Cruise Personnel

Bedford Institute - EPSONDE profiling

Neil Oakey Chief Scientist

Liam Petrie Technician

Bob Ryan Technician

Ed Verge Technician Emeritus

Dan Clark Student

University of Rhode Island - EPSONDE profiling

Dave Hebert Scientist

Russ Burgett Student

Jay Rajamony Student

Woods Hole - CTD, Mooring, BASS

Sandy Williams Scientist

Todd Morrison Student

Naomi Fraenkel Student

Bigelow Laboratory

Lew Incze Scientist

National Marine Fisheries Service

Mark Berman Scientist

Jack Green Scientist


Dan Schwartz Captain

John Etter Chief Mate

Gray Hendrikson Second Mate

George Fisher Chief Engineer

John Terry Assistant Engineer

Whitney Staley Second Assistant Engineer

Merlin Martin Seaman

John Michaud Seaman

Tony Monocandilos Seaman

Jay Grant Steward

University of Miami, Technical Support

Cecil Crosby

Don Cucchiara

Appendix 2. Tables

Table 1: Summary of ADCP operation on SJ9508

Approximate times (UTC) for the operation of the different ADCPs.

Broad-band 150 kHz

9 June 13:10 - 10 June 23:30

11 June 02:15 - 15 June 10:15

Broad-band 600 kHz

6 June 19:00 - 15 June 03:00

15 June 14:05 ->16 June 01:40

Narrow-band 150 kHz

6 June 17:25 - 9 June 13:10

10 June 23:35 - 11 June 02:15

15 June 10:20 ->16 June 10:30

Table 2: CTD Station Positions

Long-Term Moored Program CTD Section Stations

LT1 41 deg 31.0' N x 67 deg 36.0' W 35 m

LT2 41 deg 24.5' N x 67 deg 32.5' W 40 m Crest Mooring Site

LT3 41 deg 17.0' N x 67 deg 28.5' W 45 m

LT4 41 deg 12.5' N x 67 deg 26.5' W 46 m

LT5 41 deg 09.5' N x 67 deg 24.5' W 56 m

LT6 41 deg 06.0' N x 67 deg 22.5' W 62 m

LT7 41 deg 02.0' N x 67 deg 20.8' W 68 m

LT8 40 deg 58.0' N x 67 deg 19.0' W 75 m Southern Flank Mooring

LT9 40 deg 54.5' N x 67 deg 17.0' W 82 m

LT10 40 deg 50.5' N x 67 deg 15.0' W 89 m

LT11 40 deg 47.0' N x 67 deg 13.0' W 94 m

LT12 40 deg 41.5' N x 67 deg 10.5' W 108 m

LT13 40 deg 35.7' N x 67 deg 08.0' W 165 m

Turbulence Section

A1 41 deg 09.2' N x 67 deg 47.0' W 39 m

A2 41 deg 05.7' N x 67 deg 44.2' W 41 m

A3 41 deg 02.3' N x 67 deg 41.4' W 55 m

A4 40 deg 58.8' N x 67 deg 38.6' W 64 m

40 deg 57.35' 67 deg 37.59' ST2 Mooring Site

A5 40 deg 55.4' N x 67 deg 36.0' W 67 m

A6 40 deg 51.8' N x 67 deg 33.5' W 75 m ST1 Mooring Site

A7 40 deg 48.5' N x 67 deg 30.8' W 81 m

A8 40 deg 45.0' N x 67 deg 28.0' W 89 m

A9 40 deg 41.6' N x 67 deg 25.6' W 93 m

A10 40 deg 38.1' N x 67 deg 22.5' W 91 m

A11 40 deg 34.7' N x 67 deg 20.0' W 114 m

A12 40 deg 31.2' N x 67 deg 17.2' W 147 m

A13 40 deg 27.5' N x 67 deg 14.0' W 460 m

Table 3: TAPS Data Sets Collected


















TRANSECT 3 12 12

Table 4: Zooplankton Sample Summary

PUMP SAMPLES: Mixed Area Anchor Station

PUMP SAMPLES: Stratified Area Anchor Station


Cast No. Depths Sampled (m)

81 50, 40, 35, 32, 30, 24, 20, 15, 10, 5

89 50, 40, 36, 32, 30, 25, 20, 18, 15, 10, 5

92 50, 45, 40, 33, 26, 20, 15, 9, 5, 1

106 50, 40, 35, 32, 30, 28, 25, 20, 15, 10, 5

115 50, 43, 40, 36, 32, 25, 20, 15, 10, 5, 3

129 50, 45, 40, 37, 33, 30, 28, 25, 20, 15, 10, 5

137 50, 45, 40, 36, 33, 30, 27.5, 25, 25, 20, 15, 10, 5

141 45, 40, 35, 30, 27, 24, 21, 18, 15, 10, 5

161 37, 34, 31, 28, 25, 22, 19, 16, 13, 10

163 37, 34, 31, 28, 25, 22, 19, 16, 13, 10

CHLOROPHYLL SAMPLES: All Areas, Multiple Depths

Appendix 3. Figures